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1 March 2016 Influence of Spray-Solution Temperature and Holding Duration on Weed Control with Premixed Glyphosate and Dicamba Formulation
Pratap Devkota, Fred Whitford, William G. Johnson
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Water is the primary carrier for herbicide application, and carrier-water–related factors can influence herbicide performance. In a greenhouse study, premixed formulation of glyphosate plus dicamba was mixed in deionized (DI) water at 5, 18, 31, 44, or 57 C and applied immediately. In a companion study, glyphosate and dicamba formulation was mixed in DI water at temperatures of 5, 22, 39, or 56 C and sprayed after the herbicide solution was left at the respective temperatures for 0, 6, or 24 h. In both studies, glyphosate plus dicamba was applied at 0.275 plus 0.137 kg ae ha−1 (low rate), and 0.55 plus 0.275 kg ha−1 (high rate), respectively, to giant ragweed, horseweed, Palmer amaranth, and pitted morningglory. Glyphosate plus dicamba applied at a low rate with solution temperature of 31 C provided 14% and 26% greater control of giant ragweed and pitted morningglory, respectively, compared to application at solution temperature of 5 C. At both rates of glyphosate and dicamba formulation, giant ragweed and pitted morningglory control was 15% or greater at solution temperature of 44 C compared to 5 C. Weed control was not affected with premixture of glyphosate and dicamba applied ≤ 24 h after mixing herbicide. When considering solution temperature, glyphosate and dicamba applied at low rate provided 13 and 6% greater control of Palmer amaranth and pitted morningglory, respectively, with solution temperature of 22 C compared to 5 C. Similarly, giant ragweed control was 8% greater with solution temperature of 39 C compared to 5 C. Glyphosate and dicamba applied at high rate provided 8% greater control of giant ragweed at solution temperature of 22 or 39 C compared to 5 C. Therefore, activity of premixed glyphosate and dicamba could be reduced with spray solution at lower temperature; however, the result is dependent on weed species.

Nomenclature: Dicamba; glyphosate; giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifida L. AMBTR; horseweed, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. ERICA; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. AMAPA; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. IPOLA.

El agua es el solvente primario para la aplicación de herbicidas, y factores relacionados a este solvente pueden influenciar el desempeño del herbicida. En un estudio de invernadero, una formulación con una premezcla de glyphosate más dicamba fue mezclada en agua desionizada (DI) a 5, 18, 31, 44, ó 57 C y aplicada inmediatamente. En un estudio acompañante, la formulación de glyphosate más dicamba fue mezclada en agua DI a temperaturas de 5, 22, 39, ó 56 C y aplicada después de que la solución del herbicida fue dejada en su respectiva temperatura por 0, 6, ó 24 h. En ambos estudios, glyphosate más dicamba fue aplicado a 0.275 más 0.137 kg ae ha−1 (dosis baja), y 0.55 más 0.275 kg ha−1 (dosis alta), respectivamente, a Ambrosia trifida, Conyza canadensis, Amaranthus palmeri, e Ipomoea lacunosa. Glyphosate más dicamba aplicados a la dosis baja con una temperatura de solución de 31 C brindaron 14 y 26% más de control de A. trifida e I. lacunosa, respectivamente, al compararse con la aplicación con una temperatura de solución de 5 C. A ambas dosis de la formulación de glyphosate y dicamba, el control de A. trifida e I. lacunosa fue ≥15% con una temperatura de solución de 44 C al compararse con 5 C. El control de malezas no fue afectado con la premezcla de glyphosate y dicamba aplicada ≤ 24 h después de la mezcla del herbicida. Cuando se consideró la temperatura de la solución, glyphosate y dicamba aplicados a la dosi

Pratap Devkota, Fred Whitford, and William G. Johnson "Influence of Spray-Solution Temperature and Holding Duration on Weed Control with Premixed Glyphosate and Dicamba Formulation," Weed Technology 30(1), 116-122, (1 March 2016).
Received: 8 July 2015; Accepted: 1 October 2015; Published: 1 March 2016

Carrier water temperature
herbicide solution temperature
herbicide-mix holding duration
water quality
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