Two putative glyphosate-resistant (GR) Russian-thistle accessions were collected from fallow fields (wheat—fallow rotation): one from Choteau County, MT (MT-R), and a second from Columbia County, WA (WA-R) in summer/fall of 2015. Greenhouse and outdoor/field whole-plant dose-response studies were conducted to confirm and characterize the levels of glyphosate resistance in these GR accessions relative to known glyphosate-susceptible accessions (MT-S and WA-S from MT and WA, respectively). Based on GR50 values of the progeny plants, the MT-R accession exhibited 4.5-fold and 5.9-fold resistance to glyphosate relative to the MT-S accession under greenhouse and outdoor conditions, respectively. The WA-R accession showed 3.0- to 5.0-fold resistance relative to the WA-S accession in greenhouse experiments, and 1.9- to 7.5-fold resistance in multi-site field experiments. In a separate greenhouse study on alternative POST herbicides to control GR Russian-thistle, bicyclopyrone plus bromoxynil, bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr, bromoxynil plus pyrasulfotole, bromoxynil plus MCPA, paraquat alone, paraquat plus metribuzin, saflufenacil alone, saflufenacil plus 2,4-D, and 2,4-D plus bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr provided effective control (≥95%) and shoot dry weight reduction (up to 98%) of GR accessions. This research confirms the first global case of field-evolved GR Russian-thistle. Best management practices (BMPs); including alternative, effective herbicide programs (based on multiple mechanisms of action highlighted in this study) need immediate implementation to prevent further spread of GR or evolution of multiple HR Russian-thistle populations in this region.
Nomenclature: bicyclopyrone; bromoxynil; clopyralid; dicamba; diflufenzopyr; florasulam; fluroxypyr; glufosinate; glyphosate; halauxifen-methyl, methyl 4-amino-3-chloro-6-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl) pyridine-2-carboxylate; MCPA; metribuzin; paraquat; pyrasulfotole; saflufenacil; thifensulfuron; tribenuron; 2,4-D; Russian-thistle, Salsola tragus L.