Goosegrass control options in bermudagrass are limited. Topramezone is one option that offers excellent control of mature goosegrass, but application to bermudagrass results in unacceptable symptoms of bleaching and necrosis typical of hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors. Previous research has shown that adding chelated iron reduced the phytotoxicity of topramezone without reducing the efficacy of the herbicide, resulting in safening when applied to bermudagrass. Our objective was to examine additional iron sources to determine whether similar safening effects occur with other sources. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2016 to 2018 (Auburn University). Mixtures of topramezone and methylated seed oil were combined with six different commercial iron sources, including sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate (FeEDDHA), ferrous diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (FeDTPA), iron citrate, FeSO4, and a combination of iron oxide/sucrate/sulfate, some of which contained nitrogen. Bermudagrass necrosis and bleaching symptoms were visually rated on a 0% to 100% scale. Reflectance (normalized difference vegetation index) and clipping yield measurements were also collected. Application of FeDTPA and FeSO4 reduced symptoms of bleaching and necrosis when applied with topramezone. Other treatments that contained nitrogen did not reduce injury but did reduce bermudagrass recovery time following the appearance of necrosis. Inclusion of small amounts of nitrogen often negated the safening effects of FeSO4. The iron oxide/sucrate/sulfate product had no effect on bleaching or necrosis. Data suggest that the iron source had a differential effect on bleaching and necrosis reduction when applied in combination with topramezone to bermudagrass. Overall, FeSO4 and FeDTPA safened topramezone the most on bermudagrass.
Nomenclature: Topramezone; goosegrass; Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.