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26 May 2022 Population dynamics of naturally occurring weed flora in response to crop rotation and HPPD-inhibiting herbicide-based treatments
Lauren M. Schwartz-Lazaro, Nicholas E. Korres, Taghi Bararpour, Muthukumar Bagavathiannan, Jeremy Green, Jason K. Norsworthy
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Abstract

A 3-yr field study was conducted in Keiser, AR, to investigate the response of the naturally occurring weed flora, dominated by Palmer amaranth, under various combinations of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide-based programs and crop rotation sequences. In the first year, corn plots were established with three corn HPPD-based herbicide programs designed to represent a range of efficacies and selection pressures for resistance. In the following two years, corn as monoculture or with soybean and/or cotton crops was included in the rotation sequence for selected herbicide programs. Weed emergence, weed biomass, and soil seedbank were assessed through the entire experimental period. The results show that crop rotation, especially a rotation sequence with corn followed by (fb) soybean fb cotton, and the lowest-risk herbicide program involving seven sites of action over the course of the entire crop rotation was effective in reducing the emergence of naturally occurring weeds, including Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, morningglory species, and grass weeds (broadleaf signalgrass, large crabgrass, barnyardgrass, and johnsongrass) by 88.3%, 57.5%, 28.7%, and 76.3%, respectively. Treatments without crop rotation (corn as monoculture for 3 consecutive years) and poor herbicide programs, with one site of action, increased weed emergence, notably of Palmer amaranth and prickly sida, by 73.5% and 74.1%, respectively. The soil seedbank showed a similar trend to weed emergence. This study highlights the fact that reducing the weed seedbank cannot rely on one management practice but requires a multitactic approach with various control methods. HPPD-inhibiting herbicide programs seem to be effective on Palmer amaranth when coupled with crop rotation and should be used with other best management practices.

Nomenclature: barnyardgrass; Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.; broadleaf signalgrass; Urochloa platyphylla (Munro ex C. Wright) R.D. Webster; johnsongrass; Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.; large crabgrass; Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; morningglory; Ipomoea spp.; Palmer amaranth; Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson; prickly sida; Sida spinosa L.; corn; Zea mays L.; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum L.; soybean; Glycine max (L.) Merr.

© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America.
Lauren M. Schwartz-Lazaro, Nicholas E. Korres, Taghi Bararpour, Muthukumar Bagavathiannan, Jeremy Green, and Jason K. Norsworthy "Population dynamics of naturally occurring weed flora in response to crop rotation and HPPD-inhibiting herbicide-based treatments," Weed Technology 36(3), 426-435, (26 May 2022). https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2022.40
Received: 12 October 2021; Accepted: 12 May 2022; Published: 26 May 2022
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KEYWORDS
crop rotation
Herbicide resistance
integrated weed management
monoculture
soil seedbank
weed ecology
weed management
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