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24 October 2022 Narrow-row soybean and a cereal rye cover crop suppress glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis)
Justine L. Fisher, Christy L. Sprague
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Alternative strategies are needed for management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean. Integrating a cereal rye cover crop with soybean planted in narrow rows may improve control and reduce herbicide selection pressure for herbicide-resistant horseweed biotypes. Four site-years of experiments were conducted in Michigan to determine whether fall-planted cereal rye terminated with glyphosate 1 wk prior to (early termination) or 1 wk after (planting green) planting in combination with narrow-row soybean improved GR horseweed management. At postemergence (POST) herbicide application, horseweed biomass was reduced by 71% to 90% when soybean was planted into cereal rye, regardless of termination time, compared with no cover across all row widths. Planting green or narrow-row soybean suppressed horseweed through soybean harvest. When glyphosate was applied POST (noneffective), horseweed biomass was 36% to 46% lower when planting green compared with early terminated cereal rye and no cover. Similarly, planting soybean in 19- and 38-cm rows reduced horseweed biomass by 48% and 28%, respectively, compared with 76-cm rows. Cereal rye did not affect soybean yield pooled over 3 of 4 site-years; however, narrow row soybean yielded 11% to 18% higher than 76-cm rows. Soybean yield was 11% higher when an effective POST herbicide was applied. In conclusion, fall-seeded cereal rye or narrow-row soybean suppressed horseweed compared with no cover and 76-cm rows; however, the effects of early termination did not last throughout the growing season in most cases. Delaying cover crop termination by planting green reduced horseweed biomass and density through soybean harvest, but reduced yield in 1 site-year due to an increased incidence of white mold. These cultural practices have a positive influence on suppressing horseweed that should be part of an overall horseweed management strategy; however, the use of an effective POST herbicide is still needed for complete season-long horseweed management.

Nomenclature: Glyphosate; horseweed, Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.; cereal rye, Secale cereale L.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.

Justine L. Fisher and Christy L. Sprague "Narrow-row soybean and a cereal rye cover crop suppress glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis)," Weed Technology 36(6), 781-788, (24 October 2022).
Received: 28 April 2022; Accepted: 16 October 2022; Published: 24 October 2022
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