Range- and wildlands are being invaded by nonindigenous plants, resulting in an unprecedented, rapid change in plant community composition across the United States. Successional management predicts that species performance may be modified by resource availability. The objective of this study was to determine whether species performance could be altered by modifying soil nitrate (NO3–) and ammonium (NH4 ) concentrations within an Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)/bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) plant association. We planted bluebunch wheat-grass and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) in an addition series at 2 sites in southwestern Montana. Each plot in the addition series matrix was divided into thirds, and we applied nitrogen (N) to a subplot and sucrose to a 2nd subplot. The remaining subplot was not amended and considered a control. Nitrogen amendment tended to enhance the performance of spotted knapweed, while sucrose amendment had no effect. Bluebunch wheatgrass performance was not affected by either amendment. Sucrose treatments only decreased soil NO3– at the more productive site. Regression models for predicting bluebunch wheatgrass and spotted knapweed biomass accounted for only about 30% of the variation, suggesting other processes in addition to interference were responsible for explaining relative plant performance. We recommend that land managers prevent activities that increase soil N concentration while the effectiveness of carbon amendments as a means to decrease soil N concentrations and shift interference relationships is further investigated.
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Vol. 68 • No. 2