Human-made or -modified water sources (i.e., catchments) are widely used for wildlife management in the arid western United States, where thousands of such catchments have been built to enhance wildlife populations and mitigate for the loss of natural water sources. For decades, the need for and value of catchments to wildlife was unquestioned. Recently, however, the use of catchments has become controversial, particularly on public lands. Impacts to wildlife populations and wildlife habitats have been central to the debate, which has, in large part, been fueled by a paucity of scientific information. Value-based conflicts over management practices on public lands also have played a significant role.