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Sequences of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the cpDNA trnL/trnF intergenic spacer (IGS) region were analysed for 67 representative species of 54 genera of Compositae-Anthemideae to ascertain the systematic position of the three unispecific Mediterranean genera Brocchia, Endopappus and Heliocauta. For Brocchia cinerea, which was considered to be closely related to Cotula due to its 4-lobed corolla of disc florets, a position among Mediterranean genera clearly distinct from Cotula but with unresolved sister group relationships is demonstrated. For Endopappus macrocarpus a close relationship with Tripleurospermum was suggested due to similarities in achene morphology; the molecular data, however, support its position distinctly distant from Tripleurospermum and among genera with a western Mediterranean centre of distribution characterized by a 5bp deletion in the trnL/trnF IGS. For Heliocauta atlantica, which was hitherto placed in the vicinity of Hippolytia from central Asia, the molecular data reveal its sister group relationship with the strictly Mediterranean genus Anacyclus. First efforts are made to date the diversification of members of the tribe based on sequence divergence rates (c. 1 % = 0.75 Myr) and assuming an origin of the tribe in the Middle Oligocene (c. 25 Myr). It is concluded that lineages within the clade of Mediterranean and Eurasian representatives characterized by a 17bp deletion in ITS2 diverged in the Middle Miocene (c. 15 Myr).
The delimitation and tribal subdivision of the Boraginaceae are discussed, and a synonymic survey of the genera accepted for the purpose of the Euro Med Project is presented. Three new combinations at subspecies rank are validated in the genera Aegonychon, Cynoglottis and Myosotis.
For the purpose of the Euro Med Project, Liliaceae are defined in the traditional Englerian sense. Similarly, the splitting of Scilla s.l. in dozens of genera, that has recently been advocated, is not being followed. As a result, eight species originally described under Prospero are transferred to Scilla. Three further new combinations are validated in Scilla, Urginea and Fritillaria.
The American grass species Bouteloua gracilis has been found for the first time in Europe as a more or less established alien on rocky talus slopes near Palafolls (NE Spain). The species is described and depicted and its local ecology and origin are discussed.
Continuing a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to the Med-Checklist project are presented, this instalment deals with the families Aceraceae, Boraginaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Compositae, Dipsacaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Sapindaceae, Violaceae; Cyperaceae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. It includes new country and area records, taxonomic and distributional considerations. The names of two new species are validated in Festuca.
In the frame of a wider research project, an inventory of 147 alien vascular plant taxa of the urban and suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, N Greece is presented. The floristic checklist is based on extensive recent field work in 26 selected collection sites of four development sectors of the metropolitan area of the city. Each taxon recorded is given with information concerning its life-form and chorology (critically compiled as origin and current total distribution, given separately when possible), previously reported occurrence in the area, biotopes (semi-natural, anthropogenic), distribution in the investigated area and quantitative estimation of its presence per collection site. The most abundantly found taxon is Solanum elaeagnifolium, followed by Ailanthus altissima, Cynodon dactylon, Crepis sancta, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Amaranthus retroflexus and Sporobolus indicus. The annotated checklist includes earlier reports for 62 taxa and furnishes at least 85 new records for the flora of Thessaloniki. Among them are 37 taxa not given for Greece in Flora Europaea and 16 taxa not given for Greece in the Med-Checklist.
Data on the flora and vegetation of seven offshore islets of Kithira Island (Prasonisi, Megali Dragonera, Antidragonera, Kapelo, Avgo, Megalo Strongilo and Lidia) are presented. 145 vascular plant taxa (species and subspecies) are reported, of which all but three are new records for these islets. The observed vegetation units and habitat types are briefly described and the ecological value and biogeographical importance of the area are identified for conservation purposes and discussed.
31 records of native, adventive and cultivated taxa of flowering plants new to Kithira and new localities for 36 taxa rare on this island are presented. The family Tetragoniaceae and the genera Cerinthe, Eleocharis, Lepidium, Tetragonia and Xanthium are reported for the first time from the island, the presence of the genus Mentha is confirmed and new localities for the rare local endemic Polygala helenae are reported. Morphological, chorological, ecological and other data are included for most of the taxa.
The African endemic Chloris lamproparia is excluded from the genus Chloris and placed in the new, monotypic genus Stapfochloa. Its morphological characteristics and the decisive grain shape, which is not known from the related genera Chloris and Tetrapogon, are illustrated.
Peucedanum isauricum is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its taxonomic position in P. sect. Palimbioidea close to P. graminifolium of N Turkey and the more distantly related P. spreitzenhoferi of the Levant is discussed. P. isauricum stands out in combining a junciform-polygonoid habit with heteromorphic, in their majority grass-like leaves. Light-microscopic photographs of transverse sections and SEM photographs of mericarps of P. isauricum and P. spreitzenhoferi are presented. P. isauricum is considered a neo-endemic and only recorded from a very localised range in the western Central Taurus near Demirtaş, Antalya province, Turkey.
Three S Anatolian Poaceae species, Oreopoa anatolica, Secale leptorhachis and Stipa cacuminis are described as new to science, illustrated and mapped. To accommodate the first, perennial species, a new genus, Oreopoa, with unsettled affinities within the Poeae, is established. The synecology, distribution patterns and relationships of all species are outlined. In addition, considerable range extensions of five grasses, Bromopsis tomentella subsp. nivalis, Festuca cataonica, F. karsiana, F. punctoria and Koeleria brevis, towards the S Anatolian Taurus Mts are reported.
Two refugia of mesic palaeo-African genoelements in the southern coastal mountains of Yemen, viz. the Maderan area in the Urays range, Abyan, and the Jabal Gedu range, Shabwa, earlier not explored botanically, are briefly described. First records of vascular plants of phytogeographical significance for the southern mountains are given, including Juniperus procera and Mimusops laurifolia. Based on our own collections made in the southern governorates of the Republic of Yemen between 1999 and 2003 new and noteworthy records of vascular plants from other areas are also added. Eight species, Adiantum balfourii, Brachiaria arida, Maerua macrantha, Ophioglossum gomezianum, Portulaca commutata, P. constricta, Psiadia incana and Ruellia lineari-bracteolata, are reported as new for the Arabian Peninsula, the presence of Filago abyssinica is confirmed, and ten species, Campanula erinus, Capillipedium parviflorum, Hermannia testacea, Laportea interrupta, Lindenbergia muraria, Loudetia flavida, Oplismenus burmannii, Portulaca dhofarica, Sorghum versicolor and Wahlenbergia flexuosa, are reported as new for mainland Yemen. Thirty six species are reported to extend their previously known distribution range to or in the southern governorates of Yemen. Brief comments are given on the phytogeography of the taxa, distribution maps are provided for eight species; Maerua macrantha and Ophioglossum gomezianum are illustrated.
The Australian species Chenopodium (sect. Orthosporum) pumilio is reported from Iran for the first time. Several populations were discovered in the eastern and central part of the Caspian Sea Basin in the province of Mazandaran. Chromosome counts reveal 2n = 18.
Onobrychis aurea, confined to W Iran (Prov. Azarbayjan) and known from only two localities, is described as a species new to science and illustrated. O. heterophylla is reported for the first time from Iran.
Cousinia hazarensis, a distinctive species endemic to Hazar Mt in the Kerman province in southeastern Iran is described as new to science and illustrated. A key to all six species of C. sect. Spinuliferae is provided.
Plants from Kerala and Karnataka, SW India, which have been identified hitherto as Cryptocoryne consobrina, are recognized as a distinct, unique new species. It is described as C. sivadasanii, illustrated and its relationship is discussed.
Aspidistra locii from central Vietnam is described as a species new to science and illustrated. It differs from all other species of the genus in its perigone with completely connate tepals, lacking any trace of lobes, and with a very small, central, circular opening of 1.5–2 mm in diameter.
The Asian taxa of Pinus subsect. Strobus are revised, based on available type and other authentic material as well as on extensive field studies, including populations at the type localities. P. fenzeliana is neotypified and transferred to P. subsect. Flexiles. Statistical evaluation of ample material revealed that the original description of P. kwangtungensis is based on heterogeneous material, including a population from Hainan Island, which is here distinguished and described as the new species P. orthophylla. The continental P. kwangtungensis s. str., which is morphologically very close to P. wangii, is recognized as a subspecies of the latter, besides subsp. varifolia. An isolated population in N Vietnam, near the Laotian border, hitherto also considered to belong to P. kwangtungensis, is described as the new species P. eremitana. The Japanese P. parviflora, with two subspecies, is found to be closely related to P. wangii and P. eremitana. The imperfectly known Taiwanese P. uyematsui, mostly included in the other Taiwanese endemic P. morrisonicola, is maintained as a separate species similar to the Vietnamese P. dalatensis, and a hybrid between the two Taiwanese species is described as the nothospecies P. ×hayatana. The E Himalayan P. bhutanica is recognized as a subspecies of P. wallichiana. A key to all members of P. subsect. Strobus, comprising nine Eurasian and six American species, and a revised classification of the Eurasian species in two series and three subseries, one series and two subseries here described as new, are provided.
Capparis is represented in Cuba by six species of four sections. A key for their identification is provided, their nomenclature and that of the sections in which they belong is revised, and the intricate relevant typification problems are discussed. Three species, each of a different section, are not critical taxonomically. The other three, which belong to C. sect. Breyniastrum, have been poorly understood and often confused in the past. Microcharacters of trichome and leaf surface morphology (illustrated by SEM photographs) prove useful to tell them apart. In conclusion, two Macroantillean species are recognised, each represented in Cuba by a distinct, endemic subspecies (one new, one recombined); a third species, C. singularis, known from a single E Cuban gathering, is described as new to science. Distribution maps are provided of these three Cuban endemics, and the relevant specimen data are included, as a searchable database, in an electronic supplement to the present paper.
The enigmatic Galipea ossana, described in 1822 and known from the type specimen said to originate from Cuba and only one other collections made before 1841 in a locality called San Diego, is reconsidered. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic examination of flower structure, fruits and pollen grains of the scarce material available show that the species actually is the only representative of the genus Angostura on the Antilles and a W Cuban endemic, closely related to A. trifoliata from Venezuela. The combination A. ossana is validated and the diagnostic features of this species and of A. trifoliata are illustrated.
Philodendron pusillum from lowland Colombia, a small terrestrial herb inhabiting the forest floor, is described as a species new to science and compared with the similar P. humile from Brazil. It can be placed into P. subg. Philodendron but its sectional position is still uncertain.
Based on recent bryophyte collections eight new records are added to the bryophyte flora of mainland Yemen, increasing the number of known species to 133 (one hornwort, 39 liverworts, 93 mosses). First records for the Arabian Peninsula among the new findings are Archidium alternifolium (Archidiaceae) and Tuerckheimia svihlae (Pottiaceae), which are briefly described and illustrated.
The origin and identification of the 28 specimens of Cactaceae in the Willdenow herbarium in Berlin (B-W) are discussed. The eight Humboldt & Bonpland specimens from South America constitute the most important part of the collection, including five isotypes. Further, rather poorly documented specimens are of uncertain, presumably Caribbean or Central American origin or from a horticultural source. A detailed list arranged according to B-W numbers is given in tabular form. No specimens typifying Cactaceae names published by Willdenow in 1813 were located, but notes on some of these names, in particular on Cactus multangularis, are added. An index to Willdenow herbarium names of Cactaceae and current identifications is provided.