Capsule dehiscence has been used as a diagnostic character for W Mediterranean species of Androcymbium. Depending on the state of capsule maturity, the character, however, can be ambiguous in herbarium material. Based on morphological, phenological and cpDNA characters it is shown that misinterpretation of the capsule as indehiscent in the type material of A. gramineum has led to serious taxonomic confusion. The combined analyses produced evidence that A. gramineum of the population from the type locality at Essaouira, Morocco, is conspecific with A. wyssianum. A. gramineum is therefore the correct name for the species with dehiscent capsules, whereas the populations with indehiscent capsules at the Atlantic coast north of Essaouira and in SE Spain represent a second species, which is correctly named A. europaeum.
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Vol. 40 • No. 1