Translator Disclaimer
17 December 2012 Redefined generic limits of Carum (Umbelliferae, Apioideae) and new systematic placement of some of its taxa
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

A phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) sequences of the species of Carum (Umbelliferae, Apioideae) in its traditional circumscription is provided. The sampling includes also a wide spectrum of taxa across subfamily Apioideae, to identify the relationships of the various disparate elements so far united in Carum. The molecular analysis has been supplemented by an analysis of fruit and petal morphology of several critical species of Carum and beyond. Carum in its traditional interpretation is confirmed to be polyphyletic; it includes at least seven independent evolutionary lines. C. carvi, which provides the type of the generic name, and only four Caucasian and Near Eastern species, C. caucasicum, C. meifolium, C. grossheimii, C. porphyrocoleon, make up Carum s.str., while their relationship to Grammosciadium, Chamaesciadium and Fuernrohria in the same clade needs further studies. The rare Caucasian Carum komarovii as well as the W Asian Pimpinella anthriscoides and the Japanese Chamaele decumbens are closely related to and united here with Aegopodium. Carum verticillatum, for which a sister group relationship to the Oenantheae clade is revealed, is restored as the monotypic genus Trocdaris. The previous transfer of the S Siberian and Middle Asian Carum atrosanguineum to Vicatia is confirmed. Pimpinella cruciata clusters with and is included in the genus Tamamschjanella. Three new nomenclatural combinations, Aegopodium decumbens, A. komarovii and Tamamschjanella cruciata, are published.

See the PDF.

References

  1. Y. Ajani , A. Ajani , J. M. Cordes , M. F. Watson & S. R. Downie 2008: Phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS sequences reveals relationships within five groups of Iranian Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. — Taxon 57: 383–401. Google Scholar

  2. G. F. Akhundov 1955: Eleutherospermum, Carum, Chamaesciadium. — Pp. 409–410,443–445,450–453 in: I. I. Karjagin (ed.), Flora azerbaijana 6. — Baku: Akad. Nauk Azerb. SSR. Google Scholar

  3. I. J. Akinfiev 1893: Novye i redko vstrechajuchiecja vidy kavkazskoi flory, sobrannye v 1882–1891 [New and rare species of Caucasian flora, collected in 1882–1891]. — Izv. Kavkazsk. Otd. Imp. Russk. Geogr. Obshch. 15(App. 2): 1–24. Google Scholar

  4. J. A. Arenas & F. Garcia 1993: Atlas carpológico y corológico de la subfamilia Apioideae Drude (Umbelliferae) en España penincular y Baleares. — Ruizia 12: 5–244. Google Scholar

  5. E. Boissier 1872: Flora orientalis 2. — Genève, Basle & Lyon: H. Georg. Google Scholar

  6. H. de Boissieu 1909: Note complementaire sur quelques Ombellifères nouvelles ou peux connues d'ExtrêmeOrient, d'après les collections du Muséum d'Histoire naturelle de Paris. — Bull. Soc. Bot. France 56: 348–355. Google Scholar

  7. J. Bornmüller & H. Wolff 1921: Pimpinella cruciata spec, nov. — Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(1–3): 44. Google Scholar

  8. E. A. Busch 1931: Novyi vid roda Eleutherospermum C. Koch s Kavkaza [A new species of the genus Eleutherospermum C. Koch from Caucasus]. — Trudy Bot. Muz. 23: 58–64. Google Scholar

  9. A. P. de Candolle 1830: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 55–250 in: A. P. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 4. — Paris: Treuttel & Würtz. Google Scholar

  10. T. Caruel 1886: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 179–566 in: F. Parlatore , Flora italiana, continuata da Teodoro Caruel. 8. — Florence: Tip. Le Monnier. Google Scholar

  11. M.-T. Cerceau-Larrival 1959: Clé de détermination d'Ombellifères de France et d'Afrique du Nord d'après leurs grains de pollen. — Pollen Spores 1: 145–190. Google Scholar

  12. C. D. K. Cook 1983: Aquatic plants endemic to Europe and the Mediterranean. — Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 539–582. Google Scholar

  13. H. J. Coste 1902: Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France, de la Corse, et des contrées limitrophes 2. — Paris: Paul Klincksieck. Google Scholar

  14. H. J. N. von Crantz 1767: Classis Umbelliferarum emendata cum generali seminum tabula et figuris aeneis in necessarium instit. rei herbar, supplementum. — Leipzig: Ioannis Pauli Kraus. Google Scholar

  15. G. V. Degtjareva , E. V. Kljuykov , T. H. Samigullin , C. M. Valiejo-Roman & M. G. Pimenov 2009: Molecular appraisal of Bunium L. and some related arid and subarid geophilic Apiaceae-Apioideae taxa of the ancient Mediterranean. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 160: 149–170. Google Scholar

  16. R. Desfontaines 1798: Flora atlantica, sive historia plantarum, quae in Atlante, agro Tunetano et Algeriense crescunt 1. — Paris: L. G. Desgranges. Google Scholar

  17. S. R. Downie & D. S. Katz-Downie 1996: A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. — Amer. J. Bot. 83: 234–251. Google Scholar

  18. S. R. Downie , D. S. Katz-Downie & K. Spalik 2000[a]: A phylogeny of Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. — Amer. J. Bot. 87: 76–95. Google Scholar

  19. S. R. Downie , D. S. Katz-Downie , F.-J. Sun & C.-S. Lee 2008: Phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA p.sbI-5'trnK(UUU) sequences, with emphasis on the North American endemics clade. — Botany 86: 1039–1064. Google Scholar

  20. S. R. Downie , S. Ramanath , D. S. Katz-Downie & E. Llanas 1998: Molecular systematics of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and plastid rpoC1 intron sequences. — Amer. J. Bot. 85: 563–591. Google Scholar

  21. S. R. Downie , K. Spalik , D. S. Katz-Downie & J.-P. Reduron 2010: Major clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae as inferred by phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS sequences. — Pl. Diversity Evol. 128: 111–136. Google Scholar

  22. S. R. Downie , F.-J. Sun , D. S. Katz-Downie & G. J. Colletti 2004: A phylogenetic study of Perideridia (Apiaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. — Syst. Bot. 29: 737–751. Google Scholar

  23. S. R. Downie , M. F. Watson , K. Spalik & D. S. Katz-Downie 2000[b]: Molecular systematics of Old World Apioideae (Apiaceae): relationships among some members of tribe Peucedaneae sensu lato, the placement of several island-endemic species, and resolution within the apioid superclade. — Canad. J. Bot. 78: 506–528. Google Scholar

  24. S. R. Downie , G. M Plunkett , M. F. Watson , K Spalik , D. S Katz-Downie , C. M. Valiejo-Roman , E. I. Terentieva , A. V. Troitzky , B.-Y. Lee , J. Lahham & A. El-Oqlah 2001: Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data. — Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 301–330. Google Scholar

  25. O. Drude 1897–1898: Umbelliferae. — S. 49–192 in: A. Engler & K. Prantl , Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(8). — Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. Google Scholar

  26. F. E. El Alaoui-Faris 2005: Etude comparative de quelques espèces marocaines rattachées au genre Carum (Apiaceae). — Fl. Medit. 15: 599–609. Google Scholar

  27. L. Engstrand 1987: Pimpinella. — Pp. 311–333 in: K. H. Rechinger (ed.), Flora iranica 162. — Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Google Scholar

  28. J. Felsenstein 1985: Confidence limits on phylogenetics: an approach using bootstrap. — Evolution 39: 783–791. Google Scholar

  29. F. E. L. Fischer & C. A. Meyer 1849 [“1839”]: Lomatocarum alpinum — Pp. 59–60 in: F. E. L. Fischer , C. A. Meyer & J. L. E. Avé-Lallement (ed.), Index sextum seminum, quae Hortus botanicus Imperialis Petropolitanus pro mutia commutatione offert. Accedunt animadversiones botanicae nonnullae. — Petropolis: Academiae Caesareae Petropolitanae. Google Scholar

  30. D. Gómez 2003: Carum L. — P. 299–303 in: S. Castroviejo (ed. gen.), Flora iberica: plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares 10. — Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC. Google Scholar

  31. D. A. Godron 1848: Ombellifères. — Pp. 661–759 in: J. C. M. Grenier & D. A. Godron , Flore de France, ou description des plantes qui croissent naturellement en France et en Corse 1. — Paris: J. B. Baillière; London: H. Baillière; Besançon: Sainte-Agathe Fils. Google Scholar

  32. A. A. Grossheim 1932: Umbelliferae — Pp. 108–196 in: Flora Kavkaza 3. — Tiflis: Narkomzem Arm SSR. Google Scholar

  33. T. A. Hall 1999: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. — Nucleic Acids Symp. Ser. 41: 95–98. Google Scholar

  34. H. Handel-Mazzetti 1933: Symbolae sinicae 7. — Wien: Julius Springer. Google Scholar

  35. H. Hara 1954: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 291–328 in: H. Hara , Enumeratio Spermatophytarum japonicarum 3. — Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Google Scholar

  36. T. M. Hardway , K. Spalik , M. F. Watson , D. S. Katz-Downie & S. R. Downie 2004: Circumscription of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae. — S. Afr. J. Bot. 70: 393–406. Google Scholar

  37. P. Hartvig 1986: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). — Pp. 655–735 in: A. Strid & Tan Kit (ed.), Mountain flora of Greece. — New York, etc.: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  38. I. C. Hedge & J. M. Lamond 1972: Carum. — P. 347–349 in: P. H. Davis (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4. — Edinburgh: University Press. Google Scholar

  39. I. C. Hedge & J. M. Lamond 1987: Fuernrohria. — P. 162 in: K. H. Rechinger (ed.), Flora iranica 162. — Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Google Scholar

  40. D. Heller & C. C. Heyn 1993: Conspectus florae orientalis. An annotated catalogue of the flora of the Middle East 7. — Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Google Scholar

  41. V. H. Heywood 1971: Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64 (Suppl. 1: Biol. & Chem. Umbell.): 31–41. Google Scholar

  42. M. Hiroe 1979: Umbelliferae of world. — Kyoto: Ariake Co. Google Scholar

  43. M. Hiroe & L. Constance 1958: Umbelliferae of Japan. — Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 30(1). Google Scholar

  44. Y. Iinuma 1874: Somoku zusetsu [iconography of plants indigenous to, cultivated in, or introduced into Nippon (Japan)], ed. 2. — Tokyo: Seibido. Google Scholar

  45. IPNI 2012: The International Plant Names Index. — Published at  http://www.ipni.org [accessed 1 October 2012]. Google Scholar

  46. K. Ito , A. Hiroma & H. Nakai (ed.) 1994: Checklist of higher plants in Hokkaido 3. — Sapporo: Takugin Research Institute. Google Scholar

  47. K. F. W. Jessen 1879: Deutsche Excursions-Flora: Die Pflanzen des deutschen Reichs und Deutsch-Oesterreich nordlich der Alpen mit Einschluss der Nutzpflanzen und Ziehoelzer tabellarisch und geographisch bearbeitet. — Hannover: P. Cohen. Google Scholar

  48. I. I. Karjagin 1944: Novye vidy tsvetkovych rastenyi iz Azerbaidzhana [New species of flowering plants from Azerbaijan]. — Izv. Azerbaizhansk. Fil. 10: 48–54. Google Scholar

  49. I. I. Karjagin 1955: Pimpinella. — Pp. 453–461 in: Flora azerbajana 6. — Baku: Akad. Nauk Azerb.SSR. Google Scholar

  50. D. S. Katz-Downie , K. M. Valiejo-Roman , E. I. Terentieva , A. V. Troitzky , M. G. Pimenov , B. Lee & S. R Downie 1999: Towards a molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: additional information from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. — Pl. Syst. Evol. 216: 167–195. Google Scholar

  51. M. Kitagawa 1960: Synoptical review of Umbelliferae from Japan, Korea and Manchuria. — Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 5: 1–35. Google Scholar

  52. M. Kitagawa 1982: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 276–290 in: Y. Satake , J. Ohwi , S. Kitamura , S. Watari & T. Tomitari (ed.), Wild flowers of Japan: herbaceous plants (including dwarf subshrubs) 2. — Tokyo: Heibonsha. Google Scholar

  53. E. V. Kljuykov 1985: Zametka o Muretia amplifolia Boiss. & Hausskn. i rode Hellenocarum Wolff (Umbelliferae-Apioideae) [Note on Muretia amplifolia Boiss. & Hausskn. and the genus Hellenocarum Wolff (Umbelliferae-Apioideae)]. — Nauchnye Dokl. Vysshei Shkoly Biol. Nauki 8: 60–63. Google Scholar

  54. E. V. Kljuykov 1986: De generibus Stefanoffia H. Wolff and Carum L. (Apiaceae) in flora Turciae notulae systematicae. — Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 89–92. Google Scholar

  55. E. V. Kljuykov , M. Lui , T. A. Ostroumova , M. G. Pimenov , P. M. Tilney & B.-E. van Wyk 2004: Towards a standardised terminology for taxonomically important morphological characters in the Umbelliferae. — S. Afr. J. Bot. 70: 488–496. Google Scholar

  56. W. D. J. Koch 1824: Generum tribuumque Umbelliferarum nova dispositio. — Nova Acta Phys.-Med.Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12(1): 55–156. Google Scholar

  57. E.P. Korovin 1927: Rod Bunium L. i ego sredne-asiatskie predstaviteli [The genus Bunium and its Middle-Asian representatives]. — Bull. Sredne-Asiatskie. Gosud. Univ. 15: 117–129. Google Scholar

  58. B. Koso-Poljansky 1914: O filogenii rodov Umbelliferae Kavkaza. I. Apioideae [On phylogeny of the Umbelliferae genera of Caucasus. I. Apioideae]. — Trudy Tiflissk. Bot. Sada 16: 172–229. Google Scholar

  59. B. Koso-Poljansky 1916: Sciadophytorum sistematis lineamenta. — Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou, ser. 2, 29: 93–221. Google Scholar

  60. E. H. L. Krause 1904: Familie Araliaceen, Araliaceae. — In: J. Sturm (ed.), Flora von Deutschland, ed. 2, 12. — Stuttgart: K. G. Lutz. Google Scholar

  61. J. B. Lamarck 1779: Flore françoise 3. — Paris: l'Impremerie Royale. Google Scholar

  62. C.-S. Lee & S. R. Downie 2006: Phylogenetic relationships within Cicuta (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA sequence data. — Canad. J. Bot. 84: 453–468. Google Scholar

  63. A. R. Lemmon , J. M. Brown , K. Stanger-Hall & E. M. Lemmon 2009: The effect of ambiguous data on phylogenetic estimates obtained by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. — Syst. Biol. 58: 130–145. Google Scholar

  64. C. Linnaeus 1753: Species plantarum. — Holmiae [Stockholm]: Laureritii Salvii. Google Scholar

  65. V. I. Lipsky 1899: Flora Kavkaza [Flora Caucasi] 4. — Trudy Tiflissk. Bot. Sada 4. Google Scholar

  66. D. J. Mabberley 1987: The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. — Cambridge: University Press. Google Scholar

  67. A. R. Magee , B.-E. van Wyk , P. M. Tilney & S. R. Downie 2010: Phylogenetic position of African and Malagasy Pimpinella species and related genera (Apiaceae, Pimpinelleae). — Pl. Syst. Evol. 288: 201–211. Google Scholar

  68. T. Makino 1907: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 345–395 in: Y. Iinuma , Somoku zusetsu [Illustrated flora of Japan], ed. 3, 1. — Tokyo: Seibido. Google Scholar

  69. I. P. Mandenova 1973: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 251–427 in: A. L. Takhtadjan (ed.), Flora Armenii 6. — Erevan: Akad. Nauk Armjanskoi SSR. Google Scholar

  70. I. P. Mandenova 1984: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 128–326 in: N. N. Ketzchoveli (ed.). Flora Georgiae 9. — Tbilisi: Metzniereba [in Georgian]. Google Scholar

  71. V. A. Matthews 1972: Pimpinella. — Pp. 352–364 in: P. H. Davis (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4. — Edinburgh: University Press. Google Scholar

  72. J. L. Menitski 1991: Konspect vidov semeistva Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) flory Kavkaza [Synopsis of the species of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) from the Caucasus]. — Bot. Zhurn. 76: 1749–1764. Google Scholar

  73. J. L. Menitski 2008: Apiaceae Lindl. — Pp. 53–112 in: A. L. Takhtajan (ed.), Conspectus florae Caucasi 3(1). — Saint-Petersburg & Moscow: KMK Scientific Press. Google Scholar

  74. P. Mouterde 1970: Nouvelle flora du Liban et de la Syrie 2. — Beyrouth: Imprimerie catholique. Google Scholar

  75. V. Mozaffarian 1983: The family of Umbelliferae in Iran. Keys and distribution. — Tehran: Reseach Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Google Scholar

  76. V. Mozaffarian 2007: Umbelliferae — In: M. Assadi , M. Khatamsaz & A. A. Maassoumi (ed.). Flora of Iran 54. — Tehran: Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands [in Farsi]. Google Scholar

  77. H. Ohba 1999: Umbelliferae — Pp. 268–303 in: K. Iwatsuki , D. E. Boufford & H. Ohba (ed.), Flora of Japan IIc. — Tokyo: Kodansha. Google Scholar

  78. J. Ohwi 1953: Flora of Japan. — Tokyo: Shibundo. Google Scholar

  79. A. Papini 2006: The systematic position of Chamaesciadium C. A. Meyer (Umbelliferae) on the basis of nuclear ITS sequence. — Fl. Medit. 16: 45–55. Google Scholar

  80. A. Papini , F. Banci & E. Nardi 2007: Molecular evidence of polyphyletism in the plant genus Carum L. (Apiaceae). — Genet. Molec. Biol. 30: 475–482. Google Scholar

  81. A. Parsa 1948: Flore de l'Iran 2. — Teheran: Ministère de l'Education. Google Scholar

  82. H. Peşmen 1972: Chamaesciadium, Aegopodium. — Pp. 351–352, 364 in: P. H. Davis (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4. — Edinburgh: University Press. Google Scholar

  83. M. G. Pimenov 1977: Vicatia DC., novyi rod Umbelliferae for the SSSR flora [Vicatia DC., a new genus of the family Umbelliferae in the flora of the USSR]. — Bot. Zhurn. 62: 1321–1326. Google Scholar

  84. M. G. Pimenov 1978: K sistematike roda Seseli L. II. Konspekt vidov flory SSSR [De generis Seseli L. notulae systematicae. II. Adumbratio specierum florae URSS]. — Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 15: 188–200. Google Scholar

  85. M. G. Pimenov & E. V. Kljuykov 1995: Notes on Himalayan Schulzia (Umbelliferae). — Kew Bull. 50: 637–644. Google Scholar

  86. M. G. Pimenov & M. V. Leonov 1993The genera of the Umbelliferae. A nomenclator. — Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. Google Scholar

  87. M. G. Pimenov , P. K. Mukherjee , E. V. Kljuykov & M. V. Leonov 1991: Notes on the genera Vicatia DC., Sinodielsia H. Wolff and Tongoloa H. Wolff (Umbelliferae). — Feddes Repert. 102: 375–384. Google Scholar

  88. D. Posada & K. A. Crandall 1998: Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. — Bioinformatics 14: 817–818. Google Scholar

  89. G. E. Post 1896: Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai. — Beyruth: Syrian Protestant College. Google Scholar

  90. G. E. Post 1932: Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, ed. 2 (rev. by J. E. Dinsmore) 1. — Beyruth: American University Beyruth. Google Scholar

  91. FaTing Pu 1985: Carum L. — Pp. 25–30 in: Ren Hwa Shan & Meng Lan Sheh (ed.), Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 55(2). — Beijing: Science Press. Google Scholar

  92. C. S. Rafinesque 1840: Good Book, and amenities of nature, or annals of historical and natural sciences. — Philadelphia: Eleutherium of knowledge. Google Scholar

  93. K. H. Rechinger 1959: Zur Flora von Syrien, Lebanon und den angrenzenden türkischen Gebieten (Reliquiae Samuelssonianae. VI). — Ark. Bot., ser. 2, 5(1). Google Scholar

  94. K. H. Rechinger 1987: Chamaesciadium, Carum, Aegopodium. — Pp. 262–268 in: K. H. Rechinger (ed.), Flora iranica 162. — Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Google Scholar

  95. J.-P. Reduron 2007: Ombellifères de France 2. — Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, Nouv. Sér., Num. Spec. 27. Google Scholar

  96. H. G. fil. Reichenbach 1863: Die Umbelliferen der mitteleuropäischen Flora. — In: H. G. L. Reichenbach & H. G. Reichenbach , Icones florae germanicae et helveticae 21. — Leipzig: F. Hofmeister. Google Scholar

  97. R. Rutishauser & B. Isler 2001: Fuzzy Arberian morphology: Utricularia, developmental mosaics, partial shoot hypothesis of the leaf and other famous ideas of Agnes Arber (1879–1960) on vascular plant bauplans. — Ann. Bot. 88: 1173–1202. Google Scholar

  98. B. K. Schischkin 1950: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 36–604 in: B. K. Schischkin (ed.), Flora URSS 16. — Moscow — Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR. Google Scholar

  99. S. Sommier & E. Levier 1900: Enumeratio plantarum anno 1890 in Caucaso lectarum. — Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 16: 1–586. Google Scholar

  100. K. Spalik & S. R. Downie 2006: The evolutionary history of Sium sensu lato (Apiaceae): dispersal, vicariance, and domestication as inferred from ITS rDNA phytogeny. — Amer. J. Bot. 93: 747–761. Google Scholar

  101. K. Spalik & S. R. Downie 2007: Intercontinental disjunctions in Cryptotaenia (Apiaceae, Oenantheae): an appraisal using molecular data. — J. Biogeogr. 34: 2039–2054. Google Scholar

  102. K. Spalik , S. R. Downie & M. F. Watson 2009: Generic delimitations within the Sium alliance (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from cpDNA rps165'traK(UUU) and nrDNA ITS sequences. — Taxon 58: 735–748. Google Scholar

  103. K. Spalik , J.-P. Reduron & S. R. Downie 2004: The phylogenetic position of Peucedanum sensu lato and allied genera and their placement in tribe Selineae (Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae). — Pl. Syst. Evol. 243: 189–210. Google Scholar

  104. K. Spalik , M. Piwczynski , C. A. Danderson , R. KurzynaMlynik , T. S. Bone & S. R. Downie 2010: Amphitropic amphiantarctic disjunctions in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. — J. Biogeogr. 37: 1977–1994. Google Scholar

  105. A. Stamatakis 2006: RAxML-VI-HPC: Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. — Bioinformatics 22(21): 2688–2690. Google Scholar

  106. D. L. Swofford 2000: PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods), Version 4. — Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Google Scholar

  107. N. Tabanca , A. W. Douglas , E. Bedir , F. E. Dayan , N. Kirimer , K. H. C. Baser , Z. Aytaç , I. A. Khan & B. E. Scheffler 2005: Patterns of essential oil relationships in Pimpinella (Umbelliferae) based on phylogenetic relationships using nuclear and chloroplast sequences. — Pl. Genet. Resources 3(2): 149–169. Google Scholar

  108. S. G. Tamamschjan 1967: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 5–137 in: A. A. Grossheim (ed.), Flora Kavkaza, ed. 2, 7. — Leningrad: Nauka. Google Scholar

  109. E. I. Terentieva , C. M. Valiejo-Roman , M. G. Pimenov & E. V. Kljuykov 2008: Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and morphological data reveal relationships among some endemic Umbelliferae taxa of Middle Asia, Kazakhstan and Siberia. — Pp. 134–137 in: Anon. (ed.), Apiales 2008. Programme and proceedings of the 6-th International Symposium on Apiales, Moscow. — Moscow: KMK Scientific Press. Google Scholar

  110. A. Thellung 1926: Umbelliferae. — Pp. 926–1537 in: G. Hegi (ed.), Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. 5(2). — München: Lehmann. Google Scholar

  111. J. Thiebaut 1936: Flora Libano-Syrienne 1 . — La Caire [Mem. Inst. Égypte, Cairo, 31: ixxiv, 1–174]. Google Scholar

  112. B. Thiers 2008+ [continuously updated]: Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. — New York Botanical Garden: published at  http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/Google Scholar

  113. C. P. Thunberg 1784: In: J. A. Murray (ed.), Systema naturae (Systema vegetabilium), ed. 14. — Gottingae: J. C. Dieterich. Google Scholar

  114. C. C. Townsend 1964: Notes on Umbelliferae of Iraq I. — Kew Bull. 17: 427–438. Google Scholar

  115. T. G. Tutin 1968: Carum — P. 354 in: T. G. Tutin , V. H. Heywood , N. A. Burges , D. M. Moore , D. H. Valentine , S. M. Walters & D. A. Webb (ed.). Flora europaea 2. — Cambridge: University Press. Google Scholar

  116. T. G. Tutin 1980: Umbellifers of the British isles. — BSBI Handbook 2. Google Scholar

  117. B. Valdés , S. Talavera & E. Fernandez-Galiano (ed.) 1987: Flora vascular de Andalucia occidental 2. — Barcelona. Google Scholar

  118. K. M. Valiejo-Roman , E. I. Terentieva , T. H. Samigullin & M. G. Pimenov 2002: Relationships among genera in Saniculoideae and selected Apioideae (Umbelliferae) inferred from nrITS sequences. — Taxon 51: 91–101. Google Scholar

  119. C. M. Valiejo-Roman , V. S. Shneyer , T. H. Samigullin , E. I. Terentieva & M. G. Pimenov 2006b: An attemp to clarify taxonomic relationships in “Verwandtschaftskreis der Gattung Ligusticum” (UmbelliferaeApioideae) by molecular analysis. — Pl. Syst. Evol. 257: 25–43. Google Scholar

  120. C. M. Valiejo-Roman , M. G. Pimenov , E. I. Terentieva , S. R. Downie , D. S. Katz-Downie & A. V. Troitsky 1998: Molecular systematics of the Umbelliferae: using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve issues of evolutionary relationships. — Bot. Zhurn. 83: 1–22. Google Scholar

  121. K. M. Valiejo-Roman , E. I. Terentieva , T. H. Samigullin , M. G. Pimenov , F. Ghahremani-nejad & V. Mozaffarian 2006a: Molecular data (nrITS-sequencing) reveal relationships among Iranian endemic taxa of the Umbelliferae. — Feddes Repert. 117: 367–388. Google Scholar

  122. L. Villar , J. A. Sesé & J. V. Fernández 1997: Atlas de la flora del Pireneo aragonés 1. — Huesca: Consejo de Protección de la Naturaleza de Aragon. Google Scholar

  123. V. M. Vinogradova 1995: Novye dannye o rode Grammosciadium i sistematicheskoe polozhenie Fuernrohria setifolia (Apiaceae) [The new data on the genus Grammosciadium and the systematic position of Fuernrohria setifolia (Apiaceae)] . — Bot. Zhurn. 80(1): 91–99. Google Scholar

  124. H. Wolff 1927: Umbelliferae-Apioideae-Ammineae-Carinae, Ammineae-novemjugatae et genuinae. — A. Engler (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich 90. — Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. Google Scholar

  125. Y. Yabe 1902: Revisio Umbelliferarum japonicarum. — J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 16: 1–108. Google Scholar

  126. E. A. Zakharova 2010: Morphological evidence of polyphyletic nature of traditional Carum (Apiaceae-Apioideae). — Pl. Diversity Evol. 128: 409–421. Google Scholar

  127. A. S. Zernov 2006: Flora severo-zapadnogo Kavkaza [Flora of NW Causasus]. — Moskva: KMK Scientific Press. Google Scholar

  128. J. Zhou , X. Gong , S. R. Downie & H. Peng 2009: Towards a more robust molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: additional evidence from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA intron (rpll6 and rpsl6) sequences. — Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 53: 56–68. Google Scholar

  129. J. Zhou , H. Peng , S. R. Downie , Z.-W. Liu & X. Gong 2008: A molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. — Taxon 57:402–416. Google Scholar

© 2012 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.
Ekaterina A. Zakharova, Galina V. Degtjareva, and Michael G. Pimenov "Redefined generic limits of Carum (Umbelliferae, Apioideae) and new systematic placement of some of its taxa," Willdenowia 42(2), (17 December 2012). https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.42.42201
Published: 17 December 2012
JOURNAL ARTICLE
20 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top