Baphia vili Cheek is described as a new species from coastal thicket on white sand in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). It is distinguished from other species of the genus by its small, glossy, shallowly cordate leaves and is unusual in its winged fruit. Its taxonomic placement near B. letestui Pellegr. is discussed. It is assessed as Vulnerable using the IUCN standard. Based on observations of the species near Pointe Noire in the months of October, December and July, an account of its phenology is presented.
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