Hernández-Ledesma P., Berendsohn W. G., Borsch Th., Mering S. von, Akhani H., Arias S., Castañeda-Noa I., Eggli U., Eriksson R., Flores-Olvera H., Fuentes-Bazán S., Kadereit G., Klak C., Korotkova N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena H., Oxelman B., Rabeler R. K., Sanchez A., Schlumpberger B. O. & Uotila P.: A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. — Willdenowia 45: 281–383. 2015. — Version of record first published online on 11 September 2015 ahead of inclusion in December 2015 issue; ISSN 1868-6397; © 2015 BGBM Berlin.DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.3372/wi.45.45301The Caryophyllales constitute a major lineage of flowering plants with approximately 12500 species in 39 families. A taxonomic backbone at the genus level is provided that reflects the current state of knowledge and accepts 749 genera for the order. A detailed review of the literature of the past two decades shows that enormous progress has been made in understanding overall phylogenetic relationships in Caryophyllales. The process of re-circumscribing families in order to be monophyletic appears to be largely complete and has led to the recognition of eight new families (Anacampserotaceae, Kewaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae), while the phylogenetic evaluation of generic concepts is still well underway. As a result of this, the number of genera has increased by more than ten percent in comparison to the last complete treatments in the Families and genera of vascular plants” series. A checklist with all currently accepted genus names in Caryophyllales, as well as nomenclatural references, type names and synonymy is presented. Notes indicate how extensively the respective genera have been studied in a phylogenetic context. The most diverse families at the generic level are Cactaceae and Aizoaceae, but 28 families comprise only one to six genera. This synopsis represents a first step towards the aim of creating a global synthesis of the species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales integrating the work of numerous specialists around the world.