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1 October 2003 Javanese Species of the Mite Genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae)
Sri Hartini, Gen Takaku
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

INTRODUCTION

More than 20 mite species of the family Macrochelidae have been recorded and described from Indonesia: 10 species from Sumatra, 12 species from Java, and 11 species from Bali (Oudemans, 1903; Berlese, 1905, 1910, 1911, 1921; Vitzthum, 1925, 1926; Krantz, 1965, 1967a, b; Walter and Krantz, 1986a, b; Takaku, 1998, 2001; Takaku and Hartini, 2001). Macrocheles is a genus of the family Macrochelidae, and nine species of the genus were recorded and described from Java: M. crispa (Berlese, 1910), M. dispar (Berlese, 1910), M. hallidayi Walter and Krantz, 1986a, M. kraepelini (Berlese, 1905), M. krantzi Evans and Hyatt, 1963, M. limue Samšiňák, 1962, M. merdarius (Berlese, 1889), M. oigru Walter and Krantz, 1986a and M. subbadius (Berlese, 1904).

As the result of our investigation of macrochelid mites in Java in 2002, we found twelve species of the genus Macrocheles associated with dung beetles. Three of these species are described here as new to science, and two species are new records from Java.

All the mite specimens were collected from the ventral surface of scarabaeid dung beetles and were fixed in 70% ethyl alcohol. A part of the specimens were dissected under a stereoscopic microscope after clearing in lactic acid. Each body part was mounted on a slide in Hoyer's medium or PVA (polyvinyl alcohol-lactic acid mixture) medium. Observations and photographs were made with compound, phase contrast, and differential interference contrast microscope. Illustrations were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube.

All measurements are given in micrometres (μm). Measurements in each description are provided as averages and range in parentheses, if more than two specimens were measured. Dorsal chaetotaxy follows Halliday (1987). Other terminology, especially the description of sternal ornamentation, follows Walter and Krantz (1986b). The holotypes will be deposited in the collection of the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Bogor, Indonesia (MZB), and remaining specimens will be deposited in the MZB and the Zoological Collections of the Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (ZIHU).

DESCRIPTIONS

Family Macrochelidae Vitzthum, 1930 Genus Macrocheles Latreille, 1829 Macrocheles baliensis Takaku and Hartini, 2001 Macrocheles baliensis Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 327–329, figs. 1–6.

Figs. 1–6

Macrocheles dispar, female. 1, dorsum; 2, venter; 3, ventral view of gnathosoma; 4, tectum; 5, chelicera; 6, sacculus foemineus.

i0289-0003-20-10-1261-f01.gif

Material examined. Thirty three females, alt. 530 m, Kendalsari, Luwuk Waru, Malang, East Java, 26–28 August 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 3 females, alt. 600 m, Cimenyan, Sukadamai, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 14 November 2001, G. Takaku and S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.

Habitat. Aphodiini sp., Onitis sp., Onthophagus sp. (Scarabaeidae)

Distributions. Indonesia [Java (new record), Bali].

Macrocheles crispa (Berlese, 1910)

Holocelaeno crispa Berlese, 1910: 249. Macrocheles crispa: Krantz, 1967a: 35–37, fig. 5.

The present species was originally described in the genus Holocelaeno (Macrochelidae) by Berlese (1910). Krantz (1967a) transferred this species to the genus Macrocheles on the basis of specimens in the Berlese collection, Florence.

Material examined. Although this species was not collected in our investigation, Berlese (1910) recorded this species from Java.

Habitat. Copris affinis (Scarabaeidae).

Distribution. Indonesia (Java).

Macrocheles dispar (Berlese, 1910)

(Figs. 1–6)

Holostaspis dispar Berlese, 1910: 251.

Macrocheles (Coprholaspis) dispar: Berlese, 1918: 151;

Vitzthum, 1925: 13–16.

Macrocheles dispar: Walter and Krantz, 1992: 244, fig. 1D.

The present species was described by Berlese (1910). Walter and Krantz (1992) provided a photograph of the sternal shield and diagnosis of the species. However, the female dorsal setae show some variation, and males and immatures have not been described. Here we redescribe the adult female of this species on the basis of the materials collected in Java.

Female. Length of dorsal shield 698 (580–895), width at level of coxae II 401 (355–475) (n=20). Living specimens yellowish brown.

Dorsum (Fig. 1). Dorsal shield oval, attenuated posteri-orly; surface with reticulation and punctations; lateral margin of the shield smooth; shield with 28 pairs of dorsal setae and 22 pairs of pores; j1 plumose distally; j4, z2, z4, r2-4, S5, J5, and Z5 pilose distally; j2, j3 and s2 simple in most specimens, but in some cases pilose distally; other setae simple.

Venter (Fig. 2). Length of sternal shield 141 (122.5–182.5), width at level of coxae II 135 (125–155) (n=20); sternal shield ornamented with lines and punctations; linea angulata (l.ang.), linea media transversa (l.m.t.), and linea oblique posteriores (l.o.p.) with distinct punctations; l.o.p. not connected with l.m.t.; l.m.t. complete; center of posterior half of the shield with small punctations; shield with 3 pairs of simple setae and 2 pairs of pores; all setae long, but not surpassing insertions of setae behind them. Metasternal shield small and free; each shield with 1 simple seta and an anterior pore.

Length of epigynial shield 132 (107.5–157.5), width 154 (107.5–192.5); surface ornamented with lines and punctations medially; shield with pair of simple setae on lateral side.

Ventrianal shield pentagonal and ornamented with semiconcentric lines; length 228 (192.5–275), width 210 (182.5–245) (n=20); shield with 3 pairs of preanal setae, 1 pair of paranal setae, and 1 postanal seta; all setae simple. Ophisthogaster with simple and/or pilose setae and a pair of oblong metapodal shields. Postcoxal pore free from podal shield. Peritreme with stigmata at level between coxae III and IV; anterior extremities of peritreme located at level of setae z1.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 3) well developed and sclerotized; deutosternal groove with 5 transverse rows of denticles; 3 pairs of hypostomal setae and 1 pair of palpcoxal setae present; all setae simple; internal posterior hypostomal setae longer than other setae. Palpal chaetotaxy of tro-chanter, femur, and genu 2-5-6. Tectum (Fig. 4) with median process and pair of lateral elements; median process bifurcated distally and with small spicules; lateral elements smooth. Fixed digit of chelicera (Fig. 5) with simple dorsal seta, robust median tooth, small distal tooth, pilus dentilis, and terminal hook; movable digit with bidentate median tooth, minute distal tooth, and terminal hook; length of fixed digit 194 (175–250) and movable digit 75 (65–90) (n=19).

Legs. Most leg segments with simple, pilose, and plumose setae, except for coxae I-IV, trochanters I-III, femur II, genu I, tibiae I-III, and tarsus I with only simple setae. Leg chaetotaxy typical for the genus. Genu IV with 6 simple and pilose setae, and its chaetotaxy 1, 2/1, 2/0, 0.

Leg length (except ambulacrum, n=20): leg I, 630 (455–830); leg II, 561 (510–775); leg III, 548 (495–735); leg IV, 804 (725-1030).

Sacculus foemineus (Fig. 6). Pair of sacculi fused; small cornu rounded distally and sclerotized; spermatheca oval.

Male and other stages. Unknown.

Material examined. Nine females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp. and Catharsius sp.; 7 females, alt. 950 m, Mt. Halimun National Park, Cikaniki, Bogor, West Java, 27–28 February 2001, Rofik and Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 1 female, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 1 July 2001, S. Hartini and Ida leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 1 female, alt. 900 m, Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park, Bodogol, Cicurug, Sukabumi, West Java, 7–9 July 2000, E. Cholik leg., ex Catharsius sp.; 1 female, Pegandan, Sampangan, Gajah Mungkur, Semarang, Central Java, 1 June 2001, Hengky leg., ex Copris sp.

Habitat. Catharsius molossus and genera Aphodius, Catharsius, Copris, Enoplotrupes, Onthophagus, Paragymnopleurus (Scarabaeidae).

Distribution. Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Viet Nam, the Philippines, China (Szechuan), Taiwan.

Macrocheles hallidayi Walter and Krantz, 1986a Macrocheles hallidayi Walter and Krantz, 1986a: 214–216, figs. 12,13.

Figs. 7–12

Macrocheles jabarensis sp. nov., female, holotype. 7, dorsum; 8, venter; 9, ventral view of gnathosoma; 10, tectum; 11, chelicera; 12, sacculus foemineus.

i0289-0003-20-10-1261-f02.gif

Macrocheles hallidayi: Walter and Krantz, 1986b: 289, fig. 1b; Takaku, 1998: 30-36, figs. 114; Takaku, 2001: 501, figs. 3, 9; Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 325.

The female of this species was adequately described and illustrated by Walter and Krantz (1986a), the male and immature stages were described on the basis of Sumatran specimens by Takaku (1998). Some specimens of M. hallidayi were also collected from Bali (Takaku and Hartini, 2001).

Material examined. Four females, collected from cow dung, alt. 600 m, Cimenyan, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 1 July and 3 September 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 4 females, alt. 900 m, Mt. Pangrango National Park, Bodogol, Cicurug, Sukabumi, West Java, 7–9 July 2000, E. Cholik leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 21 females, alt. 950 m, Mt. Halimun National Park, Cikaniki, Bogor, West Java, 30–31 January, 6 July and 25–26 November 2000, 27–28 February and 27 April 2001, E. Cholik, Rofik, Woro and Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 31 females, alt.980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp. and Copris sp.; 6 females, Singorejo, Demak, Central Java, 11 December 1999, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 12 females, alt. 380 m, Bugangan, Candi, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java, 24 February 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Copris sp. and Onitis sp.; 4 females, Kedungmundu, Mangunharjo, Temba-lang, Semarang Selatan, Central Java, 10 January 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Scarabaeidae; 4 females, Kembangarum, Bambangkerep, Ngaliyan, Semarang, Central Java, 27 January 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 1 female, Pegandan, Sampangan, Semarang, Central Java, 6 January 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Scarabaeidae.

Habitat. Heliocopris bucephalus, Catharsius sagax, and genera Copris, Onitis, Onthophagus (Scarabaeidae).

Distribution. India, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia (Java, Madura, Sumatra, Bali), and Malaysia (Sarawak).

Macrocheles kraepelini (Berlese, 1905)

Holostaspis kraepelini Berlese, 1905: 164, fig. 26. Macrocheles (Coprholaspis) kraepelini: Berlese, 1918: 146;

Vitzthum, 1926: 34–35.

Macrocheles (Coprholaspis) multihamatus Vitzthum, 1926:

29–34, figs. 20–22.

Macrocheles kraepelini: Krantz and Filipponi, 1964: 40–42, figs. 3–5, tav. II figs. 1, 2; Halliday, 1986: 743, figs. 2, 33–39; Wallace, 1986: 8–9, fig. 2F, pl. 1(3): Walter and Krantz, 1986a: 212–213, figs. 1–3; Walter and Krantz, 1986b: 289; Halliday, 2000: 298–299; Takaku, 2001: 500–501, figs. 2 and 8.

The female of the present species was described by Berlese (1905) on the basis of material from Tjibodas, West Java. Krantz and Filipponi (1964) redescribed and illustrated this species. The male and immature stages were described by Halliday (1986) and Walter and Krantz (1986a).

Material examined. Thirty nine females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10 September and 1–3 October 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 66 females, 3 males, alt. 950 m, Mt. Halimun National Park, Cikaniki, Bogor, West Java, 30–31 January, 9–10 August, 5–6 September, 26–30 October, 25–26 November, 21–23 December 2000, 27 January, 27–28 February, 24–25 March, 26 April, 25–26 June, 23–24 July, 20–21 August and 22–23 September 2001, E. Cholik, Rofik, Sarino and Woro leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 2 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park, Bodogol, Cicurug, Sukabumi, Bogor, West Java, 7 September 2000, E. Cholik leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 2 females, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 1 July 2000, S. Hartini and Ida leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 1 female, Dempet, Demak, Central Java, 1 July 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.

Habitat. Catharsius molossus, Copris incertis, Coptodactyla ducalis, Onitis falcatus, Onthophagus laminatus, Onthophagus sp. (Scarabaeidae), Pachylister chinensis (Histeridae), breadfruit compost, decaying forest litter.

Distribution. Pakistan, India, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaya, Singapore, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Caroline Island, Australia, Indonesia (Java, Madura, Sumatra, Sulawesi).

Macrocheles krantzi Evans and Hyatt, 1963 Macrocheles krantzi Evans and Hyatt, 1963: 351, figs. 58–61.

Macrocheles ? krantzi: Krantz and Filipponi, 1964: 44, tav. IV, figs. 13 and 14.

Macrocheles krantzi: Wallace, 1986: 12, fig. 2E, pl. 2(9); Roy, 1998: 298; Halliday, 2000: 299; Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 326.

A description and a figure of this species were given by Evans and Hyatt (1963), and variations in sternal ornamentation and dorsal setae were documented by Krantz and Filipponi (1964).

Material examined. This species was not collected in our investigation.

Habitat. Genera Scarabaeus, Onthophagus (Scarabaeidae), and dung. This species has been collected from poultry manure in West Java by Hartini and Aziz, (1992); although their paper included some misidentification, M. krantzi was reconfirmed by GT on the basis of voucher specimens deposited in MZB.

Distribution. India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Indonesia (Java, Bali).

Macrocheles limue Samšiňák, 1962 Macrocheles limue Samšiňák, 1962: 202–203, figs. 34–36, pls. 7,8.

Macrocheles eurygaster Krantz, 1981: 3-7, figs. 120. Macrocheles limue: Walter and Krantz, 1986b: 283, fig. 3; Roy, 1991: 750; Roy, 1996: 311-314, figs. 114; Takaku, 2001: 501–502, figs. 4 and 10; Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 324-325.

All stages of this species were adequately described by Krantz (1981) under the name Macrocheles eurygaster.

Material examined. Eight females, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 8 September 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp. and Onitis sp.; 1 female, Cibinong, Bogor, West Java, 30 June 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 1 female, Central Java, 23 January 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 4 females, Kendalsari, Luwukwaru, Malang, East Java, 26-28 August 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 3 females, alt. 300 m, Bukit Mentari, Mt. Kerikil, Pasuruhan, East Java, 30 August 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.

Habitat. Genera Allonitis, Aphodius, Catharsius, Copris, Garreta, Heliocopris, Heteronitis, Liatongus, Onitricellus, Onitis, Onthophagus, Scarabaeus (Scarabaeidae), and compost, soil, cow dung, elephant dung, leaf litter, and so on.

Distribution. Ethiopia, Chad, Cameroon, Guinea, Zaire, Rwanda, Zambezi, Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, Swaziland, India, China, the Philippines, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Bali).

Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese, 1889)

Holostaspis merdarius Berlese, 1889, fasc. 52(1), fig. 103. Macrocheles merdarius: Sellnick, 1940: 27, 86–87, figs. 69–71; Evans and Browning, 1956: 21–23, figs. 24−26, pl. 2, fig. 7; Bregetova and Koroleva, 1960: 145–146, figs. 106(3), 111, 112(2, 3); Axtell, 1963: 628, fig. 6; Filipponi and Pegazzano, 1963: 83–88, figs. V, VI, tav. XXIV; Ishikawa, 1968: 201; Krauss, 1970: 17, fig. 10; Karg, 1971: 134, 139, figs. 148e and 150a; Emberson, 1973: 120, pl. 1, fig. 4: Wallace, 1986: 9, fig. 2C, pl. 1(4); Hyatt and Emberson, 1988: 113–114, fig. 19B–D, pl. 2A; Krantz and Whitaker, 1988: 241–242; Haitlinger, 1991: 86; Mašán, 1994: 203; Halliday, 2000: 301–302; Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 326–327.

A description, a figure, and synonymy were published by Filipponi and Pegazzano (1963) in their review of the M. subbadius species group.

Material examined. Two females, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 1 July 2000, S. Hartini and Ida leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 3 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.

Habitat. Genera Aphodius, Catharsius, Copris, Coptodactyla, Euoniticellus, Geotrupes, Lepanus, Liatongus, Notopedaria, Onthophagus, Pentodon, Phanaeus, Synapsidis (Scarabaeidae), other beetle families Histeridae, Lucanidae, Silphidae, Trogidae, mammals Rodentia, and soil, leaf litter, cow dung, compost, manure, and so on.

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. In Indonesia, this species is known from Java and Bali.

Macrocheles oigru Walter and Krantz, 1986a Macrocheles oigru Walter and Krantz, 1986b: 281–282, figs. 4 and 5.

Macrocheles oigru: Takaku, 2001: 500, figs. 1 and 7; Takaku and Hartini, 2001: 324.

This species was adequately described and illustrated by Walter and Krantz (1986b).

Material examined. Thirty two females, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 3 September, 25 October and 1 July 2000, S. Hartini and Ida leg., ex Onitis sp.; 10 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Copris sp. and Onthophagus sp.; 3 females, alt. 380 m, Bugangan, Candi, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java, 24 February 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 12 females, alt. 560 m, Kendalsari, Luwukwaru, Malang, East Java, 26–28 August 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 1 female, alt. 480 m, Sentul, Purwodadi, Pasuruhan, East Java, 29 August 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Scarabaeidae.

Habitat. Onitis philemon, Onitis faliatus, Onitis sp., Copris sp., Onthophagus sp. (Scarabaeidae)

Distribution. India, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Bali).

Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese, 1904)

Holostaspis subbadius Berlese, 1904: 264.

Macrocheles subbadius: Filipponi and Pegazzano, 1963: 73–78, figs. I, II, pl. XXII; Hyatt and Emberson, 1988: 111–113, fig. 19A, pl. 6E; Halliday, 2000: 315.

Detailed description and synonymy of the present species were given by Filipponi and Pegazzano (1963).

Material examined. This species was not collected in our investigation.

Habitat. Manure, dung beetle culture, fruit fly, house fly genera Stomoxys, Fannia, and rodent Peromyscus.

Distribution. Europe, Saudi Arabia, Russia, U.S.A., Hawaii, China, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia (Java).

Macrocheles sukaramiensis Takaku, 2001 Macrocheles sukaramiensis Takaku, 2001: 502–504, figs. 13–18.

Figs. 13–18

Macrocheles jonggolensis sp. nov., female, holotype. 13, dorsum; 14, venter; 15, ventral view of gnathosoma; 16, tectum; 17, chelicera; 18, sacculus foemineus.

i0289-0003-20-10-1261-f03.gif

A description and a figure of the female were given by Takaku (2001).

Material examined. Thirty two females, 4 males, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Catharsius sp. and Onthophagus sp.

Habitat. Catharsius molossus, Catharsius sp., Onthophagus sp. (Scarabaeidae)

Distribution. Indonesia [Java (new record), Sumatra].

Macrocheles sp. aff. glaber (Müller, 1860)

The present species is assignable to the glaber species complex (Walter and Krantz, 1986b) because of the following female characteristics: 1) dorsal setae j1, j4, Z4, and S5 pilose distally; 2) sternal ornamentation distinct; 3) ventri-anal shield not greatly expanded and without strongly dimpled reticulations. Dorsal setae of the present species are significantly shorter than those of M. oigru, and general features of this species agree with those of M. glaber. However, for accurate identification of M. glaber and allies, it is necessary to collect mites alive, rear male progeny from them individually, and then observe characters of male and/or immature (Halliday, 1986). In this investigation, we could not culture the female or collect the male and immatures, so that we cannot confirm the taxonomic status of the present species.

Material examined. Six females, alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 1 July 2000, S. Hartini and Ida leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 5 females alt. 600 m, Cimenyan, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 3 September 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.; 9 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Copris sp.; 1 female, alt. 680 m, Soekarno Hatta, Malang, East Java, 28 August 2001, S. Hartini leg., ex Onitis sp.

Macrocheles jabarensis sp.nov.

(Figs. 7–12)

Female. Length of dorsal shield 736 (620–905), width at level of coxae II 411 (340–535) (n=20). Living specimens yellowish brown.

Dorsum (Fig. 7). Dorsal shield oval, attenuated posteri-orly, surface ornamented with reticulation and punctations, lateral margin of shield smooth; shield bearing 28 pairs of dorsal setae and 22 pairs of pores; j1 plumose distally; S5, and Z5 pilose in distal half; J5 entirely pilose; other setae simple; in some cases, j4 pilose distally.

Venter (Fig. 8). Sternal shield length 143 (122.7–182.5), width at level of coxae II 152 (127.5–167.5) (n=20); l.ang., l.m.t., and l.o.p. distinct; l.m.t. complete; l.arc. distinct or present as a part of reticulation; shield with 3 pairs of simple setae and 2 pairs of pores; length of the setae similar to each other. Metasternal shield oval and free; each shield with 1 simple seta and an anterior pore.

Length of epigynial shield 124 (100–162.5), width 171 (150–215); surface ornamented with lines; shield with pair of simple setae and pores on lateral side.

Ventrianal shield with punctations along semiconcentric lines, and longer than wide; length 241 (195–297.5), width 226 (177.5–182.5); shield with 3 pairs of preanal setae, pair of paranal setae, and 1 postanal seta; all setae simple, except for pilose postanal seta. Ophisthogaster with more than 20 pairs of simple setae and a pair of oblong metapodal shields. Postcoxal pore free from podal shield. Peritreme with stigmata at level between coxae III and IV; anterior extremities of peritreme located at level of setae z1.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 9) well developed and sclerotized; deutosternal groove with 5 transverse rows of denticles; 3 pairs of hypostomal setae and 1 pair of palpcoxal setae present; all setae simple; internal posterior hypostomal setae longer than other setae. Palpal chaetotaxy of tro-chanter, femur, and genu 2-5-6. Tectum (Fig. 10) with median process and pair of lateral elements; median process bifurcate distally and with small spicules; lateral margin serrate. Fixed digit of chelicera (Fig. 11) with simple dorsal seta, robust median tooth, small distal tooth, pilus dentilis, and terminal hook; movable digit with bidentate median tooth, minute distal tooth, and terminal hook; length of fixed digit 193 (175–242.5) and movable digit 87 (60–100) (n=20).

Legs. Most leg segments with simple, pilose and plumose setae, except for coxae I–IV, trochanters I–III, genu I, tibia I and II, tarsus I with only simple setae.

Leg chaetotaxy typical for the genus. Genu IV with 6 simple and pilose setae and its chaetotaxy 1, 2/1, 2/0, 0.

Leg length (except ambulacrum, n=20): leg I, 628 (500–810); leg II, 572 (385–710); leg III, 570 (440–740); leg IV, 815 (655–1085).

Sacculus foemineus (Fig. 12). A pair of fused sacculi; cornu rounded distally and sclerotized; spermatheca oval.

Male and other stages. Unknown.

Type series. Holotype: female (MZB.Acar.2335), alt. 950 m, Mt. Halimun National Park, Cikaniki, Bogor, West Java, 27–28 September 2000, Rofik and Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp. Paratypes: 14 females, other data same as for holotype; 2 females, alt. 900 m, Mt.Gede Pangrango National Park, Bodogol, Cicurug, Sukabumi, West Java, 7–9 July 2000, E. Cholik leg., ex Catharsius sp.; 3 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.

Etymology. The species name is derived from abbreviation of Jawa Barat (=West Java).

Remarks. Sternal ornamentation of the present species is similar to that of M. dispar (Berlese, 1910) recorded from Southeast Asia. However, j4, z4, and r2-4 are simple in M. jabarensis, while those setae are pilose distally in M. dispar.

Macrocheles jonggolensis sp. nov.

(Figs. 13–18)

Female. Length of dorsal shield 728 (715–735), width at level of coxae II 480 (460–500) (n=4). Living specimens yellowish brown.

Dorsum (Fig. 13). Dorsal shield oval, attenuated posteriorly; surface ornamented with faint reticulation and punctations; lateral margin of shield smooth; shield bearing 28 pairs of dorsal setae and 22 pairs of pores; j1 plumose distally; j3, j5, j6, z1, z5, z6, and J2 simple; other setae pilose distally.

Venter (Fig. 14). Sternal shield wider than long; length 125, width at level of coxae II 171 (170–172.5) (n=4); ornamentation of sternal shield weak and without punctations; anterior half of shield ornamented with lines; l.ang., l.o.a, and l.o.p. present; l.m.t. complete; l.o.p. connected to l.m.t. Shield with 3 pairs of simple setae and 2 pairs of pores; all setae long, but not surpassing insertions of setae behind them. Metasternal shield oval and free.

Length of epigynial shield 158 (127.5–140), width 168 (152.5–187.5) (n= 4); surface without punctations and lines; shield with pair of simple seta on posterolateral corners.

Ventrianal shield with semiconcentric faint lines, longer than wide; length 231 (222.5–235), width 208 (205–212.5) (n=4); shield with 3 pairs of preanal setae, pair of paranal setae, and 1 postanal seta; all setae simple. Opisthogaster with simple setae; a pair of oblong metapodal shields. Post-coxal pore free from podal shield. Peritreme with stigmata at level between coxae III and IV; anterior extremities of peritreme located at lateral of setae z1.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 15) well developed and sclerotized; deutosternal groove with 5 transverse rows of denticles; 3 pairs of hypostomal setae and 1 pair of palpcoxal setae present; all setae simple; internal posterior hypostomal setae longer than other setae; palpal chaetotaxy of tro-chanter, femur, and genu 2-5-6. Tectum (Fig. 16) with median process and pair of lateral elements; median process bifurcate distally and with small spicules; lateral margin smooth. Fixed digit of chelicera (Fig. 17) with simple dorsal seta, robust median tooth, small distal tooth, pilus dentilis, and terminal hook; movable digit with bidentate median tooth, small distal tooth, and terminal hook; arthrodial process strongly pilose and long; length of fixed digit 220 (212.5–232.5) (n=3) and movable digit 86 (85–87.5) (n=4).

Legs. Most leg segments with simple, pilose, and plumose setae, except for coxae I-IV, trochanters I-III, genu I, tibiae I, III, tarsi I, III, IV with only simple setae and tarsus II with thick simple setae.

Leg chaetotaxy typical for genus. Genu IV with 6 simple and plumose setae and its chaetotaxy 1, 2/1, 2/0, 0.

Leg length (except ambulacrum, n=4): leg I, 581 (555–615); leg II, 568 (537.5–602.5); leg III, 544 (520–565); leg IV, 730 (702.5–742.5).

Sacculus foemineus (Fig. 18). A pair of connected broadly sacculi; cornu distinct and sclerotized; spermatheca oval.

Male and other stages. Unknown Type series. Holotype: female (MZB.Acar.2343.1), alt. 600 m, Sukadamai, Sukamakmur, Jonggol, Bogor, West Java, 25 October 2000, S. Hartini leg., ex Gymnopleurus sp. Paratypes: 3 females (MZB.Acar.2343.2-4), other data same as for holotype.

Etymology. The species name is derived from type locality.

Remarks. The present species is very similar to Macro-cheles transversus Evans and Hyatt, 1963 from Africa in its sternal ornamentation as follows: 1) l.ang. joined into one line; 2) l.o.p. connected with l.m.t.; 3) sternal punctations absent. However, the shape of some dorsal setae are different between the two species. The majority of dorsal setae are distally pilose in the present species, while they are simple in M. transversus. For example, z2, z4, and Z1-Z5 of the present species are pilose distally, whereas those of M. transversus are simple, except for Z5.

Macrocheles sukabumiensis sp. nov. (Figs. 19–24)

Figs. 19–24

Macrocheles sukabumiensis sp. nov., female, holotype. 19, dorsum; 20, venter; 21, ventral view of gnathosoma; 22, tectum; 23, chelicera; 24, sacculus foemineus.

i0289-0003-20-10-1261-f04.gif

Female. Length of dorsal shield 745 (700-795), width at level of coxae II 444 (425–530) (n=21). Living specimens yellowish brown.

Dorsum (Fig. 19). Dorsal shield oval, attenuated posteriorly; surface with areolate pattern; lateral margin of the shield smooth; shield with 28 pairs of dorsal setae and 22 pairs of pores; j1 plumose for most of its length; z1 short and simple; J5 and Z5 shorter than surrounding setae and pectinate; j6 fine with pilosity weak in some specimens; other setae pectinate for most of their length.

Venter (Fig. 20). Length of sternal shield 156 (150–175), width at level of coxae II 161 (150–175) (n=21); surface of shield with strong punctations around l.ang.; l.o.a., l.o.p., and l.arc. with punctations along those lines; l.m.t. almost complete and with distinct punctations; paired punc-tate areas present in posterior half of shield; shield with 3 pairs of simple setae and 2 pairs of pores; all setae long, but not surpassing insertions of setae behind them. Metasternal shield oval and free; each shield with 1 simple seta and an anterior pore.

Length of epigynial shield 119 (105–135), width 194 (170–225) (n=21); surface ornamented with lines and punctations anteriorly and medially; shield with pair of simple setae.

Ventrianal shield pentagonal, broad, with punctations along transverse lines and laterally; length almost same as width; length 264 (235–295), width 257 (235–285) (n=21); shield with 3 pairs of preanal setae, pair of paranal setae, and 1 postanal seta; all setae simple, except for pilose post-anal seta. Opisthogaster with simple and/or pilose setae; a pair of oblong metapodal shields. Postcoxal pore free from podal shield. Peritreme with stigmata at level between coxae III and IV; anterior extremities of peritreme located at level between seta z1 and j1.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 21) well developed and sclerotized; deutosternal groove with 5 rows of denticles; 3 pairs of hypostomal setae and 1 pair of palpcoxal setae present; all setae simple; internal posterior hypostomal setae longer than other setae. Palpal chaetotaxy of trochanter, femur, and genu 2-5-6. Tectum (Fig. 22) with median process and pair of lateral elements; median process bifurcate distally and with small spicules; lateral margin smooth. Fixed digit of chelicera (Fig. 23) with simple dorsal seta, robust median tooth, small distal tooth, pilus dentilis, and terminal hook; movable digit with bidentate median tooth, minute distal tooth, and terminal hook; length of fixed digit 211 (205–215) (n=7) and movable digit 75 (72.5–90) (n=19).

Legs. Most leg segments with simple and plumose setae, except for coxae I–IV, trochanters I–IV, tibia II and tarsi I and III with only simple setae.

Leg chaetotaxy typical for the genus. Genu IV with 6 simple and plumose setae and its chaetotaxy 1, 2/1, 2/0, 0.

Leg length (except ambulacrum, n=21): leg I, 640 (585–705); leg II, 580 (535–620); leg III, 560 (515–605); leg IV, 806 (700–865).

Sacculus foemineus (Fig. 24). A pair of fused sacculi; cornu rounded distally and sclerotized; spermatheca oval.

Male and other stages. Unknown Type series. Holotype: female (MZB.Acar.2134.3), alt. 900 m, Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park, Bodogol, Cicurug, Sukabumi, Bogor, West Java, 7-9 July 2001, E. Cholik leg., ex Onthophagus sp. Paratypes: 3 females other data same as for holotype; 13 females, alt. 950 m, Mt. Halimun National Park, Cikaniki, Bogor, West Java, 6 July 2001, Rofik and Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.; 4 females, alt. 980 m, Mt. Salak, Sukamantri, Ciomas, Bogor, West Java, 10–13 September 2001, Sarino leg., ex Onthophagus sp.

Etymology. The species name is derived from the type locality.

Remarks. The present species is similar to Macrocheles plumosus Evans and Hyatt, 1963 collected in the expedition to Sarawak, Malaysia. However, Macrocheles sukabumiensis is distinguishable from M. plumosus by the following characters: (corresponding conditions of M. plumosus in parentheses): 1) j1 normal length and more than distal half plumose (short and palmate); 2) z1 simple (pilose); 3) median part of sternal shield ornamented with punctations and lines, and without conspicuous reticulation (covered entirely by conspicuous reticulation); 4) genu IV with six simple and plumose setae (all setae strongly pilose).

Besides the abovementioned characters, punctate areas in the posterior half of the sternal shield of the present species are smaller than those of M. plumosus, and punctations in lateral side of ventrianal shield of the present species are weaker than those of M. plumosus.

Key to the species of the genus Macrocheles in Java (female only)

  1. All dorsal setae simple, short, and spine-like, except for pilose J5 (and j1 slightly pilose in M. baliensis, M. krantzi, and M. limue). …………………………………………. 2

    • –. Some dorsal setae pilose or plumose or pectinate at least distally. ……………………………………………………….. 6

  2. Posterior edge of sternal shield close to metasternal shield; l.ang. convergent medially; ventrianal shield expanded laterally. ………….. M. limue Samšiňák, 1962

    • –. Posterior edge of sternal shield disjunct from metasternal shield; l.ang. not as above; ventrianal shield subtri-angular or pentagonal, not expanded. …………………… 3

  3. L.o.a. of sternal shield connected by lines. …………….. 4

    • –. L.o.a. absent or not connected by lines. ……………….. 5

  4. Lines of sternal shield with distinct punctations; genu IV with 7 setae. ……………. M. subbadius (Berlese, 1904)

    • –. Lines and punctations of sternal shield very faint; genu IV with 6 setae. ………… M. merdarius (Berlese, 1889)

  5. Anterior half of sternal shield ornamented with somewhat reticulate pattern of punctate lines……………………. ……………………….. M. baliensis Takaku and Hartini, 2001

    • –. Ornamentation of sternal shield faint and without reticulate ornamentation. … M. krantzi Evans and Hyatt, 1963

  6. All dorsal setae pilose in most length, except for simple z1. ……………………………………. M. sukabumiensis sp. nov.

    • –. Some dorsal setae, at least j6, z5, z6, and J2, simple. ……………………………………………………………………………. 7

  7. Some dorsal setae entirely pilose or pectinate. ……… 8

    • –. Dorsal setae simple or pilose distally, except for J5 pilose for the entire length. …………………………………. 10

  8. Dorsal setae j3, j4, z4, s4, and s5 simple. ………………… ………………………………………… M. crispa (Berlese, 1910)

    • –. Dorsal setae j3, j4, z4, s4, and s5 pilose. ……………… 9

  9. Genu IV with 7 setae. ……………………………………………. ……………………….. M. hallidayi Walter and Krantz, 1986a

  10. Sternal ornamentation developed; l.o.p. bifurcated and reached to l.m.t. ………………………………………………… 11

    • –. Sternal ornamentation reduced; l.o.p. not bifurcated and disjunct from l.m.t. …………………………………………….. 13

  11. Most dorsal setae pilose distally, except for simple j3, j5, j6, z5, z6, and J2. …………… M. jonggolensis sp. nov.

    • –. Most dorsal setae simple; j1, j4, Z5, and S5 pilose distally. …………………………………………………………………………. 12

  12. Most dorsal setae elongate and surpassing insertions of setae behind them. ………………………………………………… …………………………….. M. oigru Walter and Krantz, 1986a

    • –. Dorsal setae not elongate and not reaching insertions of setae behind them. … M. sp. aff. glaber (Müller, 1860)

  13. Most dorsal setae pilose distally, except for simple j5, j6, z5, z6, J2, Z1, and Z3; anterior half of sternal shield ornamented with slight reticulate pattern. ………………….. ……………………………… M. sukaramiensis Takaku, 2001

    • –. Most dorsal setae simple; j1, S5, and Z5 pilose distally; anterior half of sternal shield with one l.arc. ………… 14

  14. Dorsal setae j4, r2-4, and z4 pilose distally. ……………… ………………………………………… M. dispar (Berlese, 1910)

    • –. Dorsal setae j4 simple or pilose distally; r2-4 and z4 simple. …………………………………………….. M. jabarensis sp. nov.

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our sincere thanks to Drs Arie Budiman and Siti Nuramaliati Prijono (LIPI) for their encouragement and giving us an opportunity to study this subject and use facilities; E. Cholik, Rofik and Sarino (LIPI) who collected valuable specimens; and Professors H. Katakura (Hokkaido University) and J. Kojima (Ibaraki University) for their critical reading of this manuscript. This study was partly supported by RONPAKU (Dissertation Ph.D.) Program, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)(2) (No. 11691161) and (B)(2) (No. 14740468) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

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Sri Hartini and Gen Takaku "Javanese Species of the Mite Genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae)," Zoological Science 20(10), 1261-1272, (1 October 2003). https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.20.1261
Received: 2 February 2003; Accepted: 1 July 2003; Published: 1 October 2003
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