We compared the reproductive characteristics of two populations of Bufo bankorensis in central Taiwan, one inhabiting a temperate climate (Meifong, 2100 m), the other inhabiting a subtropical climate (Wushe, 1100 m). We determined ovary status, spermatogenetic activity, fat body and liver mass cycles, and plasma 17-βestradiol and androgen levels over a 14 month period. B. bankorensis from both populations are prolonged breeders but the temperate population exhibits breeding activity throughout the year, while the subtropical population only breeds from September to March. Their spermatogenic cycles are continuous, and their spermatogenetic activities are invariably at stage 6, in which spermatozoa are predominant in the seminiferous tubule. Both populations show monthly variations in plasma androgen and 17-βestradiol levels, but follow different patterns. Ovary mass is larger in the temperate than in the subtropical population. The reproduction differences of two elevation toads could be reflected by adaptations to the local environmental regimes of its habitat. The reproductive patterns of these populations of Bufo bankorensis are also compared to those of sympatric and allopatric populations of five anurans studied from sites throughout Taiwan.