In the presence of 30% glycerol, the cilia of a permeabilized cell model from Paramecium exhibit dynamic orientation changes while displaying only a restricted cyclic beating with a very small amplitude. The direction of cilia under these conditions corresponds to the direction of the effective power stroke of cilia beating in the absence of glycerol, i.e., pointing posteriorly in the absence of Ca2 and anteriorly at > 10−6 M Ca2 . Ciliary reorientation toward the posterior in response to the removal of Ca2 is particularly conspicuous; all the cilia become predominantly pointing to the posterior end all through their beating phases. Previous studies suggested that the effect of glycerol is caused through modification of cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. To determine whether glycerol in fact affects ciliary reorientation through changes in protein phosphorylation, here we examined protein phosphorylation in the axonemes. Glycerol stimulated cAMP-induced phosphorylation of 29-kDa and 65-kDa proteins. The stimulation of phosphorylation was found to be partly due to the inhibition of endogenous phosphodiesterase (PDE), and partly due to the inhibition of the dephosphorylation of the 29-kDa and 65-kDa phosphoproteins within the axoneme. Thus glycerol appears to cause predominant posterior orienation of cilia by stimulating cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on those proteins. In addition, glycerol appears to inhibit ciliary beating through inhibition of dynein ATPase.