To infer the differentiation of Japanese Davidius dragonflies, we investigated the genealogies of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) and the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene region encompassing 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 sequences for three species endemic to Japan—Davidius nanus, D. fujiama, and D. moiwanus—as well as D. lunatus from the Korean Peninsula. According to the mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies, D. nanus and D. moiwanus are closely related and are sister to the continental species D. lunatus, whereas D. fujiama differentiated from an ancestor of the other three species. Although the mitochondrial DNA data did not resolve the relationships between D. nanus and three D. moiwanus subspecies, the nuclear DNA data indicate the monophyly of D. moiwanus and its subspecies. The nuclear gene genealogy suggests that isolated wetlands used by larval D. moiwanus derive from the ancestral riverine habitats of D. nanus and other Davidius species. The COI sequence divergence among local populations was much greater in D. moiwanus than in D. nanus, which may be the result of differences in the dispersal ranges associated with the habitat types of these species.