Umazuracola elongatus n. gen., n. sp., is described based on specimens collected from the body surface of the black scraper, Thamnaconus modestus (Günther), taken from the Seto Inland Sea in western Japan. The new species belongs to a new family of the copepod order Poecilostomatoida. It is characterised by the reduction of the maxilliped and leg 1 in females and modification in both sexes of legs 2, 3, and 4 into robust attachment organs, with heavy, denticulate outer spines. Although the antenna, mandible, maxillule, and maxilla of U. elongatus resemble those of species of the “bomolochiform complex”, a cladistic analysis revealed that phylogenetically this species is embedded in a different clade containing the polychaete-parasitizing families Entobiidae Ho, 1984 and Nereicolidae Claus, 1875.