Based on partial sequences of the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among brown frogs of the Rana temporaria group from China. From the phylogenetic trees obtained, we propose to include Rana zhengi in the brown frogs. Monophyly of the brown frogs was not unambiguously supported, but four well-supported clades (A, B, C, and D) always emerged, although relationships among them remained unresolved. Clade A contained brown frogs with 24 chromosomes and was split into two distinct subclades (Subclade A-1: R. chensinensis and R. huanrenensis; Subclade A-2: R. dybowskii). Polytomous relationships among populations of R. chensinensis and R. huanrenensis suggested the necessity of further taxonomic assessment. Rana kunyuensis proved to be the sister group to R. amurensis, and these two species formed Clade B. Clade C was composed of R. omeimontis and R. chaochiaoensis, and Clade D included R. sauteri, which has been placed in other ranid genera. These relationships did not change after adding published data, and monophyly of Subclade A-1, A-2, and other East Asian brown frogs with 24 chromosomes (R. pirica and R. ornativentris) was ascertained, though their relationships were unresolved. Clade C, together with R. japonica and R. longicrus, also formed a monophyletic group. Brown frogs related to Clades A and C were estimated to have dispersed from continental Asia to adjacent regions through multiple events.