We describe Tischeria gouaniae sp. n. from the tropical forests of Belize. The new species is a leaf-miner of Gouania polygama (Rhamnaceae). Together with the related T. bifurcata Braun, it is among the most striking representatives of Tischeria. Both species possess a pseudognathos and very broad aedeagus fused with extremely long lateral processes of the juxta. The new species differs from T. bifurcata in the broadly rounded vinculum, spiny juxta, and slender apical processes of the aedeagus, and in its host plant. The external features and male genitalia of Tischeria gouaniae sp. n. are figured and described. A checklist and distribution map for all nine currently known Tischeria species from North and South America are given. Most American species are known from USA, but others are now known from tropical forest habitats of Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana. Host-plants are known for five of the nine species reviewed here, belonging to four genera and two plant families (Fagaceae and Rhamnaceae).