In order to elucidate the genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia and other Asian countries, allozyme analyses and crossing experiments were carried out using 208 individuals from 21 localities in eight Asian countries. The allozyme analyses revealed that 17 enzymes examined were controlled by genes at 27 loci, and that 7.9 phenotypes were produced by 5.2 alleles on average. The two species recognized in F. limnocharis sensu lato from Southeast Asia (i.e., F. limnocharis sensu stricto and F. iskandari) were found to occur sympatrically at three localities (Bogor, Cianjur and Malingping), all on Java, Indonesia. Fejervaya iskandari was dominant at each of these localities and showed substantial geographic genetic variation. Laboratory-produced hybrids between F. limnocharis and F. iskandari from Java became underdeveloped and died at the tadpole stage, suggesting that these species are completely isolated by hybrid inviability. Hybrids between topotypic F. limnocharis and the Malaysian and Japanese conspecific populations developed normally to metamorphosis. Likewise, hybrids between topotypic F. iskandari and the Thailand and Bangladesh conspecific populations also showed normal viability throughout larval development. The present allozyme analyses and crossing experiments strongly suggested the presence of two distinct forms, the large type and the small type, in the F. limnocharis complex from Asia, and further subdivision of the large type into the F. limnocharis assemblage and the F. iskandari assemblage. The small type was found in samples from India, Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and included at least three different species. The sample from Pilok, Thailand, was considered to represent an undescribed species.
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