The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, quick and economic enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for estradiol-17β (E2) in mithun (Bos frontalis) plasma on microtiter plates using a second-antibody coating technique and hormone-horseradish peroxidase as a label. For the assay, the wells of microtiter plates were coated with affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit IgG that binds the hormone-specific antibody. One milliliter of mithun plasma was extracted using benzene and 50 μl of 300 μl volume reconstituted with assay buffer was run in the assay along with standards ranging from 0.10–100 pg/well prepared in assay buffer. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.72 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%, and the extraction efficiency was >93%. Linearity of recovery of the added hormone concentrations was recorded. The assay developed was further validated biologically by estimating the hormone concentrations in six female and five male mithun calves, 12 cyclic mithuns for the entire reproductive cycle, and four pregnant mithun cows. The EIA developed can estimate low concentrations of E2 (2.2–5.2 pg/ml) in growing calves as well as very high concentrations of the hormone during pregnancy (E2=85.6–143.5 pg/ml). Apart from being non-radioactive, the assay developed has several advantages over conventional radioimmunoassays: it is more sensitive, less labor intensive, simpler to perform, and less time consuming. In conclusion, the EIA procedure described herein is sufficiently reliable, economic, safe, quick and sensitive to estimate the hormone at all physiological levels in bovine plasma.