We studied morphological and allozymic variation in populations of Japanese salamanders, Hynobius boulengeri and H. stejnegeri. Adult H. boulengeri showed sexual dimorphism, and juveniles differed greatly from adults in many morphological characters. From the results of multivariate analyses of morphological characters, the populations were divided into four groups: (I) H. boulengeri from Honshu, (II) H. boulengeri from Shikoku, (III) H. boulengeri from the Sobo-Katamuki Mountains of Kyushu and H. stejnegeri, and (IV) H. boulengeri from the Amakusa Islands and the Osumi Peninsula. Phenotypic relationships among the four groups were identical to relationships clarified by allozymic analyses, except for group IV, which was included in group III in the allozyme tree. Some morphometric characters were significantly correlated with environmental variables. We consider H. stejnegeri to be a valid species based on its unique color pattern, morphometric characters, and allelic composition, even though it was nested within group III of H. boulengeri by both morphological and allozymic analyses. We propose that group I from Honshu and group II from Shikoku should be treated as H. boulengeri sensu stricto and H. hirosei, respectively. Resolving the taxonomic status of the remaining populations of groups III and IV from Kyushu requires further study.