The immigrans species group in the Drosophilinae is one of the representative species groups of Drosophila in East Asia. Although this group constitutes a significant part of the drosophilid fauna in the Old World, only a few species have been analyzed in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. To study the phylogeny of the immigrans group, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of two nuclear genes, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh), for 36 drosophilid species, including 12 species of the immigrans group. In the resultant phylogenetic trees, 10 species of the immigrans group (D. immigrans, D. formosana, D. ruberrima, D. albomicans, D. nasuta, D. neonasuta, D. pallidifrons, D. hypocausta, D. neohypocausta, D. siamana) consistently formed a clade (the immigrans group proper), although the phylogeny within this clade did not exactly correspond to the classification of species subgroups. However, D. annulipes and D. quadrilineata, both of which belong to the quadrilineata subgroup of the immigrans group, were not included in the immigrans group proper. Furthermore, we obtained the unexpected result that D. annulipes was included in a clade comprising Scaptomyza and Hawaiian Drosophila, together with D. maculinotata of the funebris group, although the phylogenetic relationships within this clade remain uncertain and need to be substantiated with further studies. Thus, according to the present study, the immigrans group is polyphyletic.
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