It has been reported that the synthesis, degradation, and metabolism of muscle proteins in myoblasts, as well as the proliferation and differentiation of cells, are influenced by various related to extracellular signaling molecules, such as neural transmitters, growth factors, and hormones, when muscle tissue has been exposed to mechanical stimulation. However, reports regarding the expression of growth factors during mechanical stimulation of myoblasts are few, and many questions remain unanswered. We examined the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in myoblasts subjected to mechanical stretching in vitro. In addition, apoptosis caused by intracellular stress has been reported to occur during muscle development at the embryonic stage. To clarify the expression of intracellular stress factors, we here investigated related gene expression. Expression of IGF-1 increased in the early stage of cell stretching, followed by a decrease in the late stage. This suggests that mechanical stimulation resulted in an immediate increase in IGF-1 expression, followed by a decrease as cells acclimated to the inducing environment. Caspase was significantly expressed in a stretch group at 12 hours after the beginning of mechanical stimulation, compared with a control group. This suggests that cellular proliferation is also regulated by intracellular stress factors involving the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and other organelles during the process of muscle proliferation and differentiation
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