Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host innate defense system against pathogenic microbial invasion in many organisms. In the present study, we cloned by RT-PCR a cDNA from total RNA prepared from the skin of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a novel, non-C-terminally α-amidated peptide composed of 21 amino acid residues (FLGSLIGAAIPAIKQLLGLKK). The putative peptide showed limited sequence similarity to atypical acyclic brevinin-1OK family AMPs originally isolated from the skin of the Ryukyu brown frog (R. okinavana), which lacks the COOH-terminal cyclic domain commonly observed in typical brevinin-1 groups, but that contains a C-terminally α-amidated residue. Although it is unclear whether the peptide, designated brevinin-1Ja, is produced in R. japonica skin, a synthetic replicate of the peptide showed differential growth-inhibiting activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentrations: 15 μM and 119 μM, respectively), and produced cell death of mammalian COS7 cells (LD50=28 μM).