Stanniocalcin 1 (Stc1) was originally identified as an anti-hypercalcemic hormone produced by the corpuscles of Stannius (CS) associated with the kidney in teleosts. While the stc1 gene is expressed in various tissues in fishes, its role and regulation in extra-CS tissues are unexplored. In the present study, we characterized a cDNA of stc1 in a euryhaline fish, the Japanese flounder (Paralichyhus olivaceus), and examined its expression in peripheral tissues in response to different salinities and Ca2 ion concentrations. The Japanese flounder stc1 cDNA (1331 bp) encodes a preprohormone of 251 amino acids (aa), with a signal peptide of 17 aa and a pro-sequence peptide of 15 aa followed by the mature protein of 219 aa. The deduced aa sequence of Japanese flounder stc1 showed highest sequence identity (94.0%) with the European flounder Stc1 among fish and mammalian species, but lower identity to zebrafish, pufferfish, and human STC2 (23.1–25.4%). Lowered environmental salinity resulted in a decrease in stc1 mRNA expression in vivo in the gills, kidney, intestine, and CS glands of the Japanese flounder. Furthermore, we found that extracellular Ca2 increased steady-state stc1 mRNA levels in gill and kidney cells as well as in the CS cells. Our findings suggest that Stc1 synthesis in the ionregulatory tissues is responsive to environmental salinity and Ca2 level.