Aeolosomatidae are cosmopolitan meiofaunal Annelida characterised by small size and almost exclusively asexual reproduction. This study is the first report on the chromosome morphology of two aeolosomatid species. Giemsa staining and propidium iodide labelling were performed. The somatic chromosome number of Aeolosoma viride was 2n=30 with many biarmed elements, whereas A. hemprichi showed 60 small chromosomes with a dot-like appearance. Asexual reproduction, with its clonal transmission of chromosomal repatternings, probably ensures the fixation of new karyotypes in species of Aeolosoma.
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