We investigated geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) from the Izu Island Group, Japan. There was sexual dimorphism in external characters and cranial measurements; hence, these were considered in subsequent analyses. There was geographic divergence in morphometric characters among populations of the Izu Island Group and Honshu. Mice from the Miyakejima Island and Niijima-Shikinejima Islands differed from those of other populations and from each other; Oshima Island mice also differed, but to a lesser degree. Mice from three populations from Honshu were similar to one another, and mice from Kozushima Island were more similar to those from Honshu populations than those from Izu Island Group populations. These results suggest that A. speciosus populations in the Izu Island Group may have had multiple origins. One possible hypothesis to explain these patterns of variation is that the Miyakejima, Niijima, and Shikinejima populations may share a relatively longer history of overseas dispersal, whereas the Kozushima populations may have experienced a recent invasion from Honshu via human activities.
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