Weakly electric fishes emit electric organ discharges (EODs) from their tail electric organs and sense feedback signals from their EODs by electroreceptors in the skin. The electric sense is utilized for various behaviors, including electrolocation, electrocommunication, and the Jamming avoidance response (JAR). For each behavior, various types of sensory Information are embedded in the transient electrical signals produced by the fish. These temporal signals are sampled, encoded, and further processed by peripheral and central neurons specialized for time coding. There are time codes for the sex or species Identities of other fish or the resistance and capacitance of objects. In the central nervous system, specialized neural elements exist for decoding time codes for different behavioral functions. Comparative studies allow phylogenetic comparison of time-coding neural systems among weakly electric fishes.
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