We studied the phylogenetic relationships among populations of Rana sauteri using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 244 samples from 29 localities in Taiwan. We detected 77 haplotypes among these sequences. The phylogenetic trees contained five distinct lineages: the northern (NL), eastern (EL), southern hill (SHL), northern mountain (NML), and southern mountain (SML) lineages, defined by geographical distribution. The lineage phylogeny did not support the two-species hypothesis inferred from larval morphology. To describe the possible colonization history of R. sauteri in Taiwan, we propose hypotheses of within-island differentiation and a multiple-invasion model. Using a molecular clock, we estimated the order of divergence times between lineages in order to test the migration hypothesis. The multiple-invasion model was well supported by the phylogeny and a nested clade network.