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1 January 2014 Reproductive Strategies of Leopard Toad and Mascarene Frog from Giza, Egypt
Mamdouh S. A. Akef
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I examined the reproductive strategies of leopard toad and mascarene frog by studying their annual vitellogenic cycle, monthly changes of masses of ovary, liver and fat bodies as well as egg size and number in two study areas, Abo Roash and El Mansuriya, and in the years 2001, 2005, and 2008–2009, particularly during the final two years of that period. Based on the presence of the mature ova, I found that vitellogenic cycle is continuous in toad, but discontinuous in frog. Further, leopard body reserves allocated more energy to vitellogenesis than did mascarene frog. Hence, fecundity in toad was higher than that in frog, as associated with higher egg number and size. During oviposition, female mascarene retained a small portion of a clutch, whereas toad shed all egg mass at once. Over the study period, both body and reproductive conditions reacted positively in toad, but negatively in frog. Warm temperature and long photoperiod elucidated ovarian development under high relative humidity in frog. In contrast, in toad, low relative humidity may be an environmental cue for the increase in ovarian mass. Thus, higher sexual activities occurred in spring for toad (dry environment), but in moist summer for frog. Ovarian mass and egg number were temperature-dependent in frog, but independent in toad. Relative humidity correlated significantly and negatively to egg size in both populations. It also related inversely to egg number in toad, but not in frog. Hence, eggs of the frog are controlled by both temperature and humidity in summer season. Rainfall had no effect on sexual parameters in both species.

© 2014 Zoological Society of Japan
Mamdouh S. A. Akef "Reproductive Strategies of Leopard Toad and Mascarene Frog from Giza, Egypt," Zoological Science 31(1), 37-44, (1 January 2014).
Received: 3 June 2013; Accepted: 29 August 2013; Published: 1 January 2014
climate regimes
fat bodies
reproductive traits
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