The Japanese wrinkled frog Glandirana rugosa is separated into five genetically different groups. One group in western Japan is further divided into three subgroups, found in Kyushu, Shikoku, and western Honshu. We collected G. rugosa frogs at 39 sites in Kyushu and determined nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analysis. Unexpectedly, we found a group of frogs in southeastern Kyushu that did not cluster with any of the pre-existing five groups of G. rugosa on the phylogenetic trees. The frogs in the new group and G. rugosa in Kyushu were externally similar, but there were a few significant differences in morphological features between the two populations. In addition, we observed significant differences in the frogs' calls . Thus, the group of the frogs in southeastern Kyushu may represent a new candidate species in the genus Glandirana. We discuss the possibility of a new species.
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