Two new species of the cockroach genus EucorydiaHebard, 1929 from the Nansei Islands in Southwest Japan were compared to two closely related congeners, Eucorydia yasumatsuiAsahina, 1971 and Eucorydia dasytoides (Walker, 1868). Eucorydia donanensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano sp. nov. from Yonaguni-jima Island was characterized by an overall length of 12.5–14.5 mm in males. The dorsal side of the male abdomen was entirely dark purple and there was an obscure orange band running down the middle of the tegmen. Eucorydia tokaraensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano sp. nov. was characterized by an overall length of 12.0–13.0 mm in males and a distinct orange band running down the middle of the tegmen. Eucorydia yasumatsui, E. donanensis, E. tokaraensis and the zonata population of E. dasytoides were divided into four lineages in a maximum-likelihood tree generated from a dataset concatenated from five (two nuclear, 28S rRNA, histone H3, and three mitochondrial, COII, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA) genes. We recognized the three Japanese lineages E. yasumatsui, E. donanensis, and E. tokaraensis as distinct species, which were also supported by the pairwise genetic distances (5.4–7.8%, K2P) of the COI sequences. Morphometric analysis was performed on the genitalia. A principal component analysis plot revealed that the sizes of the genitalia in the three Japanese species were similar to each other and smaller than that of the zonata population of E. dasytoides. The analysis also revealed that the three Japanese species were distinguished from each other by combinations of the sizes of L3 and L7 sclerites and the shape of R2 sclerite, with some overlapping exceptions.
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