The history of classification of the tribe Bignonieae and its genera are reviewed as context for a comprehensive new genus-level classification of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae, Lamiales). This new classification is based on a well-supported phylogeny based on multiple molecular markers from both chloroplast and nuclear DNA, a morphological survey, and a broad sampling of taxa. Genera are circumscribed here as clades that are well supported as monophyletic by molecular data and also recognizable by one or more morphological synapomorphies. Perianthomega Bureau ex Baill. is here transferred from Bignoniaceae tribe Tecomeae into Bignonieae, and 21 genera and a total of 393 species are recognized in Bignonieae: Adenocalymma Mart. ex Meisn. (82 species), Amphilophium Kunth (47), Anemopaegma Mart. ex Meisn. (45), Bignonia L. (28), Callichlamys Miq. (1), Cuspidaria DC. (19), Dolichandra Cham. (8), Fridericia Mart. (67), Lundia DC. (13), Manaosella J. C. Gomes (1), Mansoa DC. (12), Martinella Baill. (2), Neojobertia Baill. (2), Pachyptera DC. ex Meisn. (4), Perianthomega (1), Pleonotoma Miers (17), Pyrostegia C. Presl (2), Stizophyllum Miers (3), Tanaecium Sw. (17), Tynanthus Miers (15), and Xylophragma Sprague (7). Several genera are here circumscribed differently from previous classifications, in particular Memora Miers and Sampaiella J. C. Gomes are synonymized with Adenocalymma; Distictella Kuntze, Distictis Mart. ex Meisn., Glaziova Bureau, Pithecoctenium Mart. ex DC., and Urbanolophium Melch. are synonymized with Amphilophium; Cydista Miers, Clytostoma Miers ex Bureau, Macranthisiphon Bureau ex K. Schum., Mussatia Bureau ex Baill., Phryganocydia Mart. ex Bureau, Potamoganos Sandwith, Roentgenia Urb., and Saritaea Dugand are synonymized with Bignonia; Macfadyena A. DC., Melloa Bureau, and Parabignonia Bureau ex K. Schum. are synonymized with Dolichandra; Arrabidaea DC. is synonymized with Fridericia; Gardnerodoxa Sandwith is synonymized with Neojobertia; Leucocalantha Barb. Rodr. is synonymized with Pachyptera; and Ceratophytum Pittier, Periarrabidaea A. Samp., Paragonia Bureau, Pseudocatalpa A. H. Gentry, and Spathicalyx J. C. Gomes are synonymized with Tanaecium. The genera Adenocalymma, Amphilophium, Fridericia, Dolichandra, and Tanaecium are formally emended here as to diagnosis and circumscription. A natural key, complete morphological descriptions, and illustrations characterize the accepted genera, and full generic synonymy and a catalogue of their component species summarize their basic nomenclature and geographic range. Three new names are published: B. neouliginosa L. G. Lohmann replaces Phryganocydia uliginosa Dugand; B. neoheterophylla L. G. Lohmann replaces Cydista heterophylla Seibert; and Tanaecium neobrasiliense L. G. Lohmann replaces Sanhilaria brasiliensis Baill. Thirty-two generic names are newly synonymized, and 144 new nomenclatural combinations are made. A lectotype is designated for one genus, Periarrabidaea A. Samp., and 78 species names. One species name is neotypified, Memora campicola Pilg. (≡ Adenocalymma campicola (Pilg.) L. G. Lohmann).
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