This review summarizes evidence for the role of proteolytic enzymes that degrade and inactivate insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) during follicular development in mammals. In some species (e.g., bovine), evidence indicates that decreases in IGFBP-4 and -5 levels in estrogen-dominant preovulatory follicles are likely due, in part, to increased protease activity, whereas lower levels of IGFBP-2 are not due to increased proteolysis. Increased IGFBP-4 and -5 protease along with lower amounts of IGFBP-4 binding activity and greater amounts of free IGF-I are some of the earliest developmental changes documented in bovine growing antral follicles. This protease activity has recently been ascribed to serine metalloprotease(s), including pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), which was first detected in human follicular fluid nearly 20 yr ago. Other recent studies verified the presence of PAPP-A mRNA in granulosa cells of humans, monkeys, cattle, mice, and pigs. Increases in the amount of PAPP-A mRNA in granulosa cells during follicular development occurs in some but not all species, indicating that other proteases or protease inhibitors may be involved in IGFBP degradation. Whether the hormonal control of PAPP-A production/activity by the ovary differs between monotocous and polytocous animals will require further study. These protease-induced decreases in IGFBP-4 and -5 likely cause increased levels of bioavailable (or free) IGFs that stimulate steroidogenesis and mitogenesis in developing dominant follicles, which ultimately prepare the follicle(s) and oocyte(s) for successful ovulation and fertilization.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.