Lethal and sublethal effects of Neemix 4.5 EC, a commercial neem preparation, on balsam fir sawfly, Neodiprion abietis (Harris), were determined in the laboratory. Larval mortality of N. abietis increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and lethal time decreased with increasing Neemix 4.5 EC concentration. Fifty percent of the larvae died after 4.6 d at a concentration of 90 ppm azadirachtin (AZA) and 12.3 d at a concentration of 0.08 ppm. Neemix 4.5 EC showed some deterrent effects to feeding site selection on N. abietis larvae at high concentrations, but not at low concentrations. Strong reduction of food intake by N. abietis larvae after exposure to Neemix 4.5 EC was demonstrated by significant reduction of frass production. Larvae fed on Neemix 4.5 EC-treated foliage at 90 ppm AZA produced only 16% as much frass as that produced by larvae fed on control foliage (0 ppm). Neemix 4.5 EC at a concentration of 0.08 ppm AZA retarded larval and pupal development. Sublethal doses significantly reduced pupal weight and adult emergence, although the sex ratio of N. abietis adults was not affected. Results indicate that sublethal effects of Neemix 4.5 EC on N. abietis may contribute greatly to the overall field efficacy.
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