Translator Disclaimer
1 September 2017 TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®)
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3–1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46–0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23–0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

Copyright 2017 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Gabby J. Drake, Tim Nuttall, Javier López, William Magnone, Antoine Leclerc, Romain Potier, Alexis Lécu, Maëlle Guézénec, Lydia Kolter, Amélie Nicolau, Karin Lemberger, Didier Pin, and Sallie B. Cosgrove "TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 48(3), 818-828, (1 September 2017). https://doi.org/10.1638/2016-0239.1
Accepted: 1 April 2017; Published: 1 September 2017
JOURNAL ARTICLE
11 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top