Two nonrelated Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) from the same enclosure developed multifocal alopecia with hyperkeratotic to ulcerative skin lesions on the lower abdomen and inner thighs. Necropsy samples of the first animal showed hyperplastic dermatitis together with in situ carcinoma and intralesional Demodex organisms. The second monkey developed similar lesions 2.5 yr later. Skin scrapings and biopsies also revealed Demodex mites within hyperplastic dermatitis. Long-term treatment with ivermectin, imidacloprid-moxidectin, and sarolaner resolved the demodicosis but skin lesions progressed to actinic keratosis and carcinoma. Both cutaneous neoplasia and demodicosis are rarely described in New World monkeys and these are the first reported cases in Goeldi's monkeys. Since the animals had access to ultraviolet (UV) light, as recommended for indoor-housed callitrichids, the skin tumors were likely UV-induced and the mites have settled particularly within impaired regions. Thus, apparent demodicosis can indicate cutaneous immunosuppression and might alert caretakers to adjust the UV regime.
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