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1 July 2017 Multimodal Life-Cycle Variation in 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)
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Periodical cicadas, known for strict life-cycle lengths of 13 or 17 yr, actually exhibit developmental plasticity in cycle length. This variation tends to occur in 1- and 4-yr increments for both life-cycle types, with the largest events involving 4-yr accelerations of the 17-yr species. The pattern has stimulated hypotheses to explain brood formation and life-cycle evolution, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. We present the first quantitative evidence confirming that a site with a 4-yr acceleration does not necessarily experience comparable emergence in the following year, and we provide the first density estimate for a 4-yr early emergence of 17-yr cicadas (1.28/m2, within the range of published estimates for on-schedule emergences). We also document a 4-yr early 13-yr emergence—cicadas apparently emerging in 9 yr. Multimodal life-cycle patterns spanning −4 to 4 yr are evident in both 13- and 17-yr cicadas.

© 2017 Kansas Entomological Society
David C. Marshall, Kathy B. R. Hill, and John R. Cooley "Multimodal Life-Cycle Variation in 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)," Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 90(3), 211-226, (1 July 2017).
Received: 25 January 2018; Accepted: 18 February 2018; Published: 1 July 2017

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