Periodical cicadas, known for strict life-cycle lengths of 13 or 17 yr, actually exhibit developmental plasticity in cycle length. This variation tends to occur in 1- and 4-yr increments for both life-cycle types, with the largest events involving 4-yr accelerations of the 17-yr species. The pattern has stimulated hypotheses to explain brood formation and life-cycle evolution, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. We present the first quantitative evidence confirming that a site with a 4-yr acceleration does not necessarily experience comparable emergence in the following year, and we provide the first density estimate for a 4-yr early emergence of 17-yr cicadas (1.28/m2, within the range of published estimates for on-schedule emergences). We also document a 4-yr early 13-yr emergence—cicadas apparently emerging in 9 yr. Multimodal life-cycle patterns spanning −4 to 4 yr are evident in both 13- and 17-yr cicadas.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.