We propose that small patches of land protected by low (1.2-m tall) fence is a viable approach for restoring and/or conserving forests in riparian or upland areas with high white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) populations. We also propose that this new approach may be advantageous because, unlike tree shelters, fenced areas protect shrubs just as well as trees in afforestation projects. Multi-year field experiments were performed involving deer exclosures where fence height and fenced area were manipulated in upland and lowland pasture and forest settings. Results show that low fencing significantly increased seedling survival and growth relative to unfenced areas when fenced areas were small (i.e., less than or equal to ∼100 m2). Moreover, tall fencing (1.8 or 2.3 m) did not provide significantly greater protection than shorter (1.2-m) fencing when the fenced areas were kept small. We propose that creating small patches of deer-free pasture or forest habitat will greatly support new approaches to afforestation such as applied nucleation. Finally, we show that low-stature fencing may also have application for protecting larger areas (≥0.8 ha) if the fencing is deployed around the perimeter as two low fences erected in parallel and with a small (3-m) space between them. We conclude that low fencing can result in levels of survival and growth of both trees and shrubs suitable to meet the success criteria for afforestation projects funded by the US federal government.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 39 • No. 1