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15 April 2019 Malformations in Insular and Coastal Populations of Toads in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil
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Anuran malformations are rarely reported to occur with high frequencies in natural populations. However, there is consensus that they can be caused by several factors. Herein, we report malformations in Rhinella ornata toads from land-bridge islands and compare their frequency with those of mainland populations from Rio de Janeiro. All islands showed levels of malformation significantly higher than the threshold of 5%, and one of the islands, Ilha Grande—which is the largest, farthest from the coast, and has been isolated for the longest time—had the highest frequency of morphological defects. Although it is possible that factors such as chemical contamination and parasite infection cause these defects, we also propose populational bottlenecks as contributing to the high frequency of malformations. Further studies are needed to understand the causes and consequences of malformations in these insular populations.

© 2019 Brazilian Society of Herpetology
Raoni Rebouças, Hélio Ricardo da Silva, and Mirco Solé "Malformations in Insular and Coastal Populations of Toads in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil," South American Journal of Herpetology 14(1), 12-18, (15 April 2019).
Received: 11 April 2017; Accepted: 21 April 2018; Published: 15 April 2019

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