Phylogenetic relationships among 75 species of Lentibulariaceae, representing the three recognized genera, were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron and the trnL-F region. Sequence data from the two loci were analyzed both separately and in combination. Consensus trees from all analyses are congruent, and parsimony jackknife results demonstrate strong support for relationships both between and within each of the three demonstrably monophyletic genera. The genus Pinguicula is sister to a Genlisea-Utricularia clade, the phylogenetic structure within this clade closely follows Taylor's recent sectional delimitations based on morphology. Three principal clades are shown within Utricularia, with the basal sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia together forming the sister lineage of the remaining Utricularia species. Of the fundamental morphological specializations, the stoloniferous growth form apparently arose independently within Genlisea and Utricularia three times, and within Utricularia itself, perhaps more than once. The epiphytic habit has evolved independently at least three times, in Pinguicula, in Utricularia section Phyllaria, and within the two sections Orchidioides and Iperua (in the latter as bromeliad tank-epiphytes). The suspended aquatic habit may have evolved independently within sections Utricularia and Vesiculina. Biogeographic optimization on the phylogeny demonstrates patterns commonly associated with the boreotropics hypothesis and limits the spatial origin of Lentibulariaceae to temperate Eurasia or tropical America.
Communicating Editor: Matt Lavin