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27 June 2018 Fifty-ninth Supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds
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This is the 18th supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between April 15, 2017, and April 15, 2018, by the AOS's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature—North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (Banks et al. 2000). During the past year, long-time member Jim Rising left the Committee for health reasons, and Ben Winger was added to the Committee.

Changes in this supplement include the following: (1) one species (Tadorna tadorna) is added to the main list, by transfer from the Appendix, on the basis of new distributional information; (2) two species (Automolus exsertus and Sporophila morelleti) are added to the main list because of splits from species already on the list; (3) the distributional statements or Notes of five species (Elaenia chiriquensis, Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Fluvicola pica, Vireo olivaceus, and Henicorhina leucophrys) are changed because of splits from extralimital species; (4) one species name is changed (to Caprimulgus jotaka) because of splits from extralimital species; (5) one species (Geothlypis aequinoctialis) is lost because of transfer of the only subspecies in our area to G. semiflava; (6) one species (Ramphocelus costaricensis) is lost by merger with a species already on the list; (7) one species (Gracula religiosa) is lost by transfer to the Appendix, and its circumscription is changed; (8) seven genera (Pseudobulweria, Horornis, Larvivora, Cyanecula, Calliope, Centronyx, and Ammospiza) are added because of splits from other genera, resulting in the loss of two genera (Cettia and Luscinia) and changes to 12 scientific names (Pseudobulweria rostrata, Horornis diphone, Larvivora cyane, L. sibilans, Cyanecula svecica, Calliope calliope, Centronyx bairdii, C. henslowii, Ammospiza leconteii, A. maritima, A. nelsoni, and A. caudacuta); (9) one genus (Dryobates) is added because of a lump with other genera, resulting in the loss of one genus (Veniliornis) and changes to 10 scientific names (Dryobates pubescens, D. nuttallii, D. scalaris, D. borealis, D. villosus, D. albolarvatus, D. fumigatus, D. arizonae, D. stricklandi, and D. kirkii); (10) one genus (Phaeomyias) is lost by merger with another genus, resulting in a change to one scientific name (Nesotriccus murinus); (11) the scientific names of two species (Melopyrrha portoricensis and M. violacea) are changed because of a transfer between genera already on the list; (12) the English names of two species (Perisoreus canadensis and Leistes militaris) are changed; and (13) three species (Lampornis amethystinus, Empidonax affinis, and Vireo gundlachii) are added to the list of species known to occur in the United States.

New families of storm-petrels (Oceanitidae) and suboscine passerines (Onychorynchidae) are added, a subfamily classification and a new linear sequence are adopted for the Accipitridae, and a modified subfamily classification and a new linear sequence are adopted for the Tyrannidae, all due to new phylogenetic data. The family placements of six genera (Oceanites, Pelagodroma, Fregetta, Onychorhynchus, Terenotriccus, and Myiobius) and the subfamily placements of 14 genera (Mionectes, Leptopogon, Phylloscartes, Pseudotriccus, Myiornis, Lophotriccus, Oncostoma, Poecilotriccus, Todirostrum, Cnipodectes, Rhynchocyclus, Tolmomyias, Machetornis, and Sublegatus) are changed on the basis of new information on their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, Piprites is moved from Genus Incertae Sedis to the new subfamily Pipritinae.

Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of this supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7th edition (with supplements) become additions to it. A list of the bird species known from the AOS Check-list area can be found at  http://checklist.aou.org/taxa, and proposals that form the basis for this supplement can be found at  http://checklist.aou.org/nacc/proposals/2018.html.

The following changes to the 7th edition (page numbers refer thereto) and its supplements result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii–liv. The number in the title of the list of species remains unchanged at 2,143. Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:

  • Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck. (A)

  • Caprimulgus jotaka Gray Nightjar. (A)

  • OCEANITIDAE

  • Pseudobulweria rostrata Tahiti Petrel. (A)

  • Elaninae

  • Gypaetinae

  • Accipitrinae

  • Dryobates pubescens Downy Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates nuttallii Nuttall's Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates scalaris Ladder-backed Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates borealis Red-cockaded Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates villosus Hairy Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates albolarvatus White-headed Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates fumigatus Smoky-brown Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates arizonae Arizona Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates stricklandi Strickland's Woodpecker.

  • Dryobates kirkii Red-rumped Woodpecker.

  • Automolus exsertus Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner.

  • ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE

  • Pipritinae

  • Rhynchocyclinae

  • Nesotriccus murinus Mouse-colored Tyrannulet.

  • Perisoreus canadensis Canada Jay.

  • Horornis diphone Japanese Bush-Warbler. (H, I)

  • Larvivora cyane Siberian Blue Robin. (A)

  • Larvivora sibilans Rufous-tailed Robin. (A)

  • Cyanecula svecica Bluethroat.

  • Calliope calliope Siberian Rubythroat. (A)

  • Centronyx bairdii Baird's Sparrow.

  • Centronyx henslowii Henslow's Sparrow.

  • Ammospiza leconteii LeConte's Sparrow.

  • Ammospiza maritima Seaside Sparrow.

  • Ammospiza nelsoni Nelson's Sparrow.

  • Ammospiza caudacuta Saltmarsh Sparrow.

  • Leistes militaris Red-breasted Meadowlark.

  • Ramphocelus passerinii Scarlet-rumped Tanager.

  • Melopyrrha portoricensis Puerto Rican Bullfinch.

  • Melopyrrha violacea Greater Antillean Bullfinch.

  • Sporophila torqueola Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater.

  • Sporophila morelleti Morelet's Seedeater.

Delete the following names:

  • Caprimulgus indicus Gray Nightjar. (A)

  • Pterodroma rostrata Tahiti Petrel. (A)

  • Picoides scalaris Ladder-backed Woodpecker.

  • Picoides nuttallii Nuttall's Woodpecker.

  • Picoides pubescens Downy Woodpecker.

  • Picoides fumigatus Smoky-brown Woodpecker.

  • Picoides villosus Hairy Woodpecker.

  • Picoides arizonae Arizona Woodpecker.

  • Picoides stricklandi Strickland's Woodpecker.

  • Picoides borealis Red-cockaded Woodpecker.

  • Picoides albolarvatus White-headed Woodpecker.

  • Veniliornis kirkii Red-rumped Woodpecker.

  • Phaeomyias murina Mouse-colored Tyrannulet.

  • Perisoreus canadensis Gray Jay.

  • Cettia diphone Japanese Bush-Warbler. (H, I)

  • Luscinia sibilans Rufous-tailed Robin. (A)

  • Luscinia calliope Siberian Rubythroat. (A)

  • Luscinia svecica Bluethroat.

  • Luscinia cyane Siberian Blue Robin. (A)

  • Gracula religiosa Hill Myna.

  • Ammodramus bairdii Baird's Sparrow.

  • Ammodramus henslowii Henslow's Sparrow.

  • Ammodramus leconteii LeConte's Sparrow.

  • Ammodramus nelsoni Nelson's Sparrow.

  • Ammodramus caudacutus Saltmarsh Sparrow.

  • Ammodramus maritimus Seaside Sparrow.

  • Leistes militaris Red-breasted Blackbird.

  • Geothlypis aequinoctialis Masked Yellowthroat.

  • Ramphocelus passerinii Passerini's Tanager.

  • Ramphocelus costaricensis Cherrie's Tanager.

  • Loxigilla portoricensis Puerto Rican Bullfinch.

  • Loxigilla violacea Greater Antillean Bullfinch.

  • Sporophila torqueola White-collared Seedeater.

Recognize new family OCEANITIDAE and move the following species to this family:

  • Oceanites oceanicus

  • Pelagodroma marina

  • Fregetta tropica

Adopt the following linear sequence for families in the order Procellariiformes:

  • DIOMEDEIDAE

  • OCEANITIDAE

  • HYDROBATIDAE

  • PROCELLARIIDAE

Adopt the following subfamily arrangement and linear sequence of species for the family ACCIPITRIDAE:

  • Elaninae

    1. Gampsonyx swainsonii

    2. Elanus leucurus

  • Gypaetinae

    1. Chondrohierax uncinatus

    2. Leptodon cayanensis

    3. Elanoides forficatus

  • Accipitrinae

    1. Morphnus guianensis

    2. Harpia harpyja

    3. Aquila chrysaetos

    4. Spizaetus tyrannus

    5. Spizaetus melanoleucus

    6. Spizaetus ornatus

    7. Harpagus bidentatus

    8. Circus hudsonius

    9. Circus buffoni

    10. Circus aeruginosus

    11. Accipiter poliogaster

    12. Accipiter soloensis

    13. Accipiter superciliosus

    14. Accipiter striatus

    15. Accipiter cooperii

    16. Accipiter gundlachi

    17. Accipiter bicolor

    18. Accipiter gentilis

    19. Milvus migrans

    20. Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    21. Haliaeetus albicilla

    22. Haliaeetus pelagicus

    23. Ictinia mississippiensis

    24. Ictinia plumbea

    25. Busarellus nigricollis

    26. Geranospiza caerulescens

    27. Rostrhamus sociabilis

    28. Helicolestes hamatus

    29. Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea

    30. Buteogallus anthracinus

    31. Buteogallus gundlachii

    32. Buteogallus meridionalis

    33. Buteogallus urubitinga

    34. Buteogallus solitarius

    35. Morphnarchus princeps

    36. Rupornis magnirostris

    37. Parabuteo unicinctus

    38. Geranoaetus albicaudatus

    39. Pseudastur albicollis

    40. Leucopternis semiplumbeus

    41. Buteo plagiatus

    42. Buteo nitidus

    43. Buteo lineatus

    44. Buteo ridgwayi

    45. Buteo platypterus

    46. Buteo solitarius

    47. Buteo brachyurus

    48. Buteo swainsoni

    49. Buteo albonotatus

    50. Buteo jamaicensis

    51. Buteo lagopus

    52. Buteo regalis

Change the sequence of species in the genera Picoides, Dendrocopos, and Dryobates (including one species formerly in Veniliornis) to:

  • Picoides dorsalis

  • Picoides arcticus

  • Dendrocopos major

  • Dryobates pubescens

  • Dryobates nuttallii

  • Dryobates scalaris

  • Dryobates borealis

  • Dryobates villosus

  • Dryobates albolarvatus

  • Dryobates fumigatus

  • Dryobates arizonae

  • Dryobates stricklandi

  • Dryobates kirkii

Recognize new family ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE and adopt the following classification and linear sequence for families from TYRANNIDAE to OXYRUNCIDAE:

  • PIPRIDAE

  • COTINGIDAE

  • TITYRIDAE

  • OXYRUNCIDAE

  • ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE

  • TYRANNIDAE

Move the genera and included species of Onychorhynchus, Terenotriccus, and Myiobius, in this sequence, to the newly inserted ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE.

Recognize new subfamilies Pipritinae and Rhynchocyclinae and adopt the following classification and linear sequence for subfamilies in TYRANNIDAE:

  • Pipritinae

  • Platyrinchinae

  • Rhynchocyclinae

  • Elaeniinae

  • Tyranninae

  • Fluvicolinae

Delete the heading Genus INCERTAE SEDIS above Piprites griseiceps and move this species to follow the newly inserted Pipritinae.

Move the genera and included species of Mionectes, Leptopogon, Phylloscartes, Pseudotriccus, Myiornis, Lophotriccus, Oncostoma, Poecilotriccus, Todirostrum, Cnipodectes, Rhynchocyclus, and Tolmomyias, in this sequence, to the newly inserted Rhynchocyclinae.

Move Machetornis rixosa to Tyranninae to follow Pitangus sulphuratus, and Sublegatus arenarum to Fluvicolinae to follow Fluvicola pica.

Change the sequence of species formerly in the genus Luscinia to:

  • Larvivora cyane

  • Larvivora sibilans

  • Cyanecula svecica

  • Calliope calliope

Change the sequence of species formerly in the genus Ammodramus to:

  • Ammodramus savannarum

  • Centronyx bairdii

  • Centronyx henslowii

  • Ammospiza leconteii

  • Ammospiza maritima

  • Ammospiza nelsoni

  • Ammospiza caudacuta

Change the sequence of species in the genera Melopyrrha, Loxipasser, and Loxigilla to:

  • Melopyrrha portoricensis

  • Melopyrrha nigra

  • Melopyrrha violacea

  • Loxipasser anoxanthus

  • Loxigilla noctis

  • Loxigilla barbadensis

Note: The entries below follow the current linear sequence as established in this and previous supplements, although entries continue to be cross-referenced to page numbers in AOU (1998).

1. [p. 64] Before the account for Tadorna ferruginea, insert the following new species account:

  • Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus). Common Shelduck.

  • Anas Tadorna Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 122; based on “The Sheldrake, or Burrough-Duck” of Albin, 1731, Nat. Hist. Birds, 1, p. 90, pl. 94. (Coasts of Europe; restricted to Sweden by Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 40.)

Habitat

Muddy and sandy shores of large coastal estuaries in Europe; shores of inland saline and brackish lakes in open steppe in Asia.

Distribution

Breeds from northwestern Europe from Iceland, the British Isles, and Scandinavia south to the Atlantic coast of France (isolated populations in French Mediterranean shores and Sardinia, a few in Tunisia); and in Asia from extreme southeastern Europe across Turkey and the northern shores of the Black Sea eastward over central Asia through Mongolia to northern China (small and isolated breeding populations in Iran and Afghanistan). European populations largely resident, but many stage a molt migration in summer and spend the late summer in coastal Germany. Asian populations migratory.

Winters south to North Africa, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, Bangladesh, Korea, Japan (mainly Kyushu) and southern China, rarely south to Senegal, the Arabian Peninsula, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Accidental in the Philippines.

Casual in Newfoundland (St. Johns, 17 November 2009, and Avalon Peninsula, 3 April 2014; photos; Pyle et al. 2017). Brinkley (2010) detailed some 40 records in North America through early 2010, many from eastern Canada and the mid-Atlantic region, and considered that those could well involve birds of natural origin, perhaps from the increasing Iceland population. Other records, including a few from western North America (e.g., California) are more problematical.

2. [p. 273] Caprimulgus jotaka and C. phalaena are treated as species separate from C. indicus. Remove the species account for C. indicus and replace it with the following new account:

  • Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel. Gray Nightjar.

  • Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel, 1844, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 1847, p. 37, pl. 12 ♂, pl. 13 ♀. (Japan.)

Habitat

Open coniferous and deciduous forest including clear-cuts (avoids closed forest); winters along forest edges and in more open country.

Distribution

Breeds from southeastern Siberia and the Russian Far East south to northeastern Mongolia, Japan, and central and eastern China, and in the Himalayas from northeastern Pakistan, southwestern Tibet, Nepal, and northern India, east to northwestern Thailand, west-central Laos, and in China through Szechwan, northwestern Yunnan, southern Shensi, and Kweichow to Fukien. Northern populations are highly migratory.

Winters in the Himalayas eastward from western Nepal, northeastern India (south to the northeastern Ghats), southern Myanmar, and southeastern China south through the remainder of southeast Asia to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and rarely the Philippines.

Casual in Sakhalin, southern Kuril Islands, Palau, Andaman Islands, and western New Guinea. Accidental off northwestern Australia (off Ashmore Reef) and in Alaska (Buldir Island, Aleutians, 31 May 1977, salvaged specimen; Day et al. 1979).

Notes

Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with C. indicus Latham, 1790 [Jungle Nightjar] and C. phalaena Hartlaub and Finsch, 1872 [Palau Nightjar] as C. indicus [Gray Nightjar], but treated as separate species primarily on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Pratt et al. 1987, Rasmussen and Anderton 2005, Pratt and Etpison 2008, del Hoyo et al. 2018).

3. [p. 303] Records of Lampornis amethystinus [Amethyst-throated Hummingbird] in Canada and the United States are recognized. Add the following new paragraph to the end of the section on Distribution:

Accidental in Quebec (Saguenay, Région Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, 30–31 July 2016; male, photos; Pyle et al. 2017) and in Texas (Davis Mountains, Jeff Davis County, 14–15 October 2016; male, photos; Pyle et al. 2017).

4. [p. 686] Phylogenetic analysis of morphology (Imber 1985) and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Bretagnolle et al. 1998, Kennedy and Page 2002, Welch et al. 2014) have shown that the genus Pterodroma is not monophyletic. After the species account for Pterodroma longirostris, insert the following heading, citation, and Notes:

Genus PSEUDOBULWERIA Mathews.

  • Pseudobulweria Mathews, 1936, Ibis, p. 309. Type, by original designation, Thalassidroma (Bulweria) macgillivrayi G. R. Gray.

    Notes

    Formerly (e.g., Chesser et al. 2011) considered part of Pterodroma, but now treated as separate on the basis of morphological (Imber 1985) and genetic (Bretagnolle et al. 1998, Kennedy and Page 2002, Welch et al. 2014) data which indicate that Pterodroma as previously constituted was not monophyletic and that species of Pseudobulweria are not true Pterodroma.

    Change Pterodroma rostrata to Pseudobulweria rostrata and place the account for this species under the heading and Notes for Pseudobulweria. Replace the existing Notes with the following: Formerly placed in Pterodroma. See comments under Pseudobulweria.

    After the heading and citation for Genus PTERODROMA Bonaparte, add the following Notes:

    Notes

    See comments under Pseudobulweria.

    5. [pp. 22–26] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Kennedy and Page 2002, Hackett et al. 2008, Prum et al. 2015, Reddy et al. 2017) have shown that the family Hydrobatidae is not monophyletic. After the species account for Phoebastria albatrus, insert the following new heading and Notes:

    Family OCEANITIDAE: Southern Storm-Petrels.

  • Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) included in the family Hydrobatidae, but genetic data (Kennedy and Page 2002, Hackett et al. 2008, Prum et al. 2015, Reddy et al. 2017) indicate that Hydrobatidae sensu lato consists of two deeply divergent clades that are not sister taxa.

    Move the headings and citations for Genus OCEANITES Keyserling and Blasius, Genus PELAGODROMA Reichenbach, and Genus FREGETTA Bonaparte, and their included species accounts, in this sequence, to follow this new family heading.

    Change the family heading for Hydrobatidae to Family HYDROBATIDAE: Northern Storm-Petrels, and move this heading and its included genera and species accounts to follow the species account for Fregetta tropica. Insert the following Notes after the family heading:

    Notes

    See comments under Oceanitidae.

    6. [p. 98] Dickinson (2004) concluded that Mathews and Iredale (1921) were correct in showing that the genus name Pseudastur, previously attributed to Blyth, should instead be attributed to G. R. Gray. Change the heading and citation for Pseudastur to:

    Genus PSEUDASTUR G. R. Gray.

  • Pseudastur G. R. Gray, 1849, Genera Birds III (index): 55. Type, by original designation, Falco poecilonotus “Cuvier” = Falco albicollis Latham, 1790.

    Add the following at the end of the existing Notes for Pseudastur: Pseudastur was formerly ascribed to Blyth, but Mathews and Iredale (1921) showed that the first publication of Blyth's name was in Gray's index and that the name must be attributed to Gray (also see Dickinson 2004).

    7. [pp. 87–105] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Lerner and Mindell 2005, Griffiths et al. 2007, Lerner et al. 2008, Raposo do Amaral et al. 2009) have shown that the linear sequence of species in the family Accipitridae does not reflect their evolutionary relationships. Rearrange the sequence of species to:

    • Gampsonyx swainsonii

    • Elanus leucurus

    • Chondrohierax uncinatus

    • Leptodon cayanensis

    • Elanoides forficatus

    • Morphnus guianensis

    • Harpia harpyja

    • Aquila chrysaetos

    • Spizaetus tyrannus

    • Spizaetus melanoleucus

    • Spizaetus ornatus

    • Harpagus bidentatus

    • Circus hudsonius

    • Circus buffoni

    • Circus aeruginosus

    • Accipiter poliogaster

    • Accipiter soloensis

    • Accipiter superciliosus

    • Accipiter striatus

    • Accipiter cooperii

    • Accipiter gundlachi

    • Accipiter bicolor

    • Accipiter gentilis

    • Milvus migrans

    • Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    • Haliaeetus albicilla

    • Haliaeetus pelagicus

    • Ictinia mississippiensis

    • Ictinia plumbea

    • Busarellus nigricollis

    • Geranospiza caerulescens

    • Rostrhamus sociabilis

    • Helicolestes hamatus

    • Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea

    • Buteogallus anthracinus

    • Buteogallus gundlachii

    • Buteogallus meridionalis

    • Buteogallus urubitinga

    • Buteogallus solitarius

    • Morphnarchus princeps

    • Rupornis magnirostris

    • Parabuteo unicinctus

    • Geranoaetus albicaudatus

    • Pseudastur albicollis

    • Leucopternis semiplumbeus

    • Buteo plagiatus

    • Buteo nitidus

    • Buteo lineatus

    • Buteo ridgwayi

    • Buteo platypterus

    • Buteo solitarius

    • Buteo brachyurus

    • Buteo swainsoni

    • Buteo albonotatus

    • Buteo jamaicensis

    • Buteo lagopus

    • Buteo regalis

    8. [pp. 87–105] A subfamily classification is adopted for family Accipitridae, following Griffiths et al. (2007). This results in the following changes:

    Under the heading Family ACCIPITRIDAE: Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies, add the following:

    Notes

    Linear sequence follows Lerner and Mindell (2005), Griffiths et al. (2007), and Raposo do Amaral et al. (2009), and subfamily classification follows Griffiths et al. (2007).

    After the heading and Notes for family Accipitridae, insert the following new heading:

    Subfamily ELANINAE: Elanine Kites.

  • Move the headings Genus GAMPSONYX Vigors, Genus ELANUS Savigny, their citations, and their included species accounts to follow this heading, and delete the existing Notes under Gampsonyx.

    After the species account for Elanus leucurus, insert the following new heading:

    Subfamily GYPAETINAE: Gypaetine Hawks.

  • Move the headings Genus CHONDROHIERAX Lesson, Genus LEPTODON Sundevall, Genus ELANOIDES Vieillot, their citations, and their included species accounts to follow this heading.

    After the species account for Elanoides forficatus, insert the following new heading:

    Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE: Hawks, Eagles, and Old World Vultures.

  • Move the headings Genus MORPHNUS Dumont, Genus HARPIA Vieillot, Genus AQUILA Brisson, Genus SPIZAETUS Vieillot, Genus HARPAGUS Vigors, Genus CIRCUS Lacépède, Genus ACCIPITER Brisson, Genus MILVUS Lacépède, Genus HALIAEETUS Savigny, Genus ICTINIA Vieillot, Genus BUSARELLUS Lesson, Genus GERANOSPIZA Kaup, Genus ROSTRHAMUS Lesson, Genus HELICOLESTES Bangs and Penard, Genus CRYPTOLEUCOPTERYX Raposo do Amaral et al., Genus BUTEOGALLUS Lesson, Genus MORPHNARCHUS Ridgway, Genus RUPORNIS Kaup, Genus PARABUTEO Ridgway, Genus GERANOAETUS Kaup, Genus PSEUDASTUR G. R. Gray, Genus LEUCOPTERNIS Kaup, Genus BUTEO Lacépède, their citations and Notes (except as below), and their included species accounts, in this sequence, to follow this heading. Delete the existing Notes under Busarellus.

    9. [pp. 339–341] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Weibel and Moore 2002a, 2002b; Winkler et al. 2014; Fuchs and Pons 2015; and Shakya et al. 2017) have shown that the genus Picoides is polyphyletic. These findings result in the following changes:

    Move the heading Genus PICOIDES Lacépède, its citation, and the species accounts for P. dorsalis and P. arcticus to follow the species account for Xiphidiopicus percussus, and insert the following Notes under Picoides:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) included many species now placed in Dryobates, but genetic data (Weibel and Moore 2002a, 2002b; Winkler et al. 2014; Fuchs and Pons 2015; Shakya et al. 2017) indicate that Picoides as previously constituted was polyphyletic and that these species are not true Picoides.

    Move the heading Genus DENDROCOPOS Koch, its citation, and the species account for D. major to follow the species account for Picoides arcticus.

    After the species account for Dendrocopos major, insert the following new heading:

    Genus DRYOBATES Boie.

  • Remove the citations for Dryobates, Phrenopicus, and Xenipicus from the synonymy of Picoides and place them under the heading for Dryobates. Remove the citation for Veniliornis and place it under the heading for Dryobates, preceding the citation for Xenipicus. Add the following Notes at the end of the synonymy:

    Notes

    See comments under Picoides and in the species accounts below.

    Change the generic names of Picoides pubescens, P. nuttallii, P. scalaris, P. borealis, P. villosus, P. albolarvatus, P. fumigatus, P. arizonae, P. stricklandi, and Veniliornis kirkii to Dryobates, make the appropriate changes in generic names or abbreviations within the existing Notes, and place the accounts for these species, in this sequence, under the heading and Notes for Dryobates.

    Insert the following as new Notes or add to the end of the existing Notes in the species accounts for Dryobates pubescens, D. nuttallii, and D. scalaris:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Picoides. See comments under Picoides.

    Insert the following as new Notes or add to the end of the existing Notes in the species accounts for Dryobates borealis, D. villosus, D. albolarvatus, D. arizonae, and D. stricklandi:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Picoides, and sometimes (e.g., Gill and Donsker 2018) placed in Leuconotopicus. See comments under Picoides.

    Replace the Notes in the species account for Dryobates fumigatus with:

    Notes

    Formerly placed in Veniliornis (AOU 1983, 1998) or Picoides (Chesser et al. 2012). See comments under Picoides.

    Replace the Notes in the species account for Dryobates kirkii with:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Veniliornis.

    Delete the heading Genus VENILIORNIS Bonaparte.

    10. [p. 352] Automolus exsertus is treated as a species separate from A. ochrolaemus, following Freeman and Montgomery (2017). In the account for A. ochrolaemus, revise the distributional statement as follows and insert the following Notes:

    Distribution

    Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Costa Rica, and both slopes of Panama (except Chiriquí province), and in South America west of the Andes from northern Colombia to western Ecuador, and east of the Andes from central Colombia, central Venezuela, and the Guianas south to central Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with A. exsertus, but separated based on differences in vocalizations and differential responses to playback of A. exsertus and A. ochrolaemus hypophaeus, respectively, in Central America (Freeman and Montgomery 2017).

    After the account for A. ochrolaemus, insert the following new species account:

    • Automolus exsertus Bangs. Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner.

    • Automolus exsertus Bangs, 1901, Auk 18: 367. (Divala, Chiriquí.)

    Habitat

    Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (0–1400 m; Tropical and lower Subtropical zones).

    Distribution

    Resident on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica (absent from the dry northwest) and western Panama (Chiriquí east to Veraguas).

    Notes

    See comments under A. ochrolaemus.

    11. [pp. 347, 373–420] Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Rheindt et al. 2008; Tello et al. 2009) have shown that the arrangement of families in the tyrannine portion of the Suborder TYRANNI: Suboscines does not reflect their evolutionary relationships. These findings result in the following changes:

    Delete the heading Superfamily TYRANNOIDEA: Tyrant-Flycatchers, Cotingas, Manakins, and Allies.

    Replace the Notes under the heading Suborder TYRANNI: Suboscines with:

    Notes

    Classification and linear sequence of families follow Tello et al. (2009), Moyle et al. (2009), and Ohlson et al. (2013).

    Move the heading and Notes for Family PIPRIDAE: Manakins, and its included genus and species accounts, to follow the species account for Synallaxis erythrothorax.

    Move the heading and Notes for Family COTINGIDAE: Cotingas, and its included genus and species accounts, to follow the species account for Ceratopipra erythrocephala.

    Move the heading and Notes for Family TITYRIDAE: Becards, Tityras, and Allies, and its included genus and species accounts, to follow the species account for Carpodectes nitidus.

    Move the heading and Notes for Family OXYRUNCIDAE: Sharpbills, and its included genus and species accounts, to follow the species account for Tityra inquisitor.

    After the species account for Oxyruncus cristatus, insert the following new heading and Notes:

    Family ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE: Royal-Flycatchers.

  • Notes

    The genera Onychorhynchus, Terenotriccus, and Myiobius were formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the Fluvicolinae, but genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Tello et al. 2009) indicate that they form a clade more closely related to the Oxyruncidae than to the Tyrannidae.

    Move the headings, citations, and Notes for Genus ONYCHORHYNCHUS Fischer von Waldheim, Genus TERENOTRICCUS Ridgway, and Genus MYIOBIUS G. R. Gray, and their included species accounts, in this sequence, to follow this new heading.

    Move the heading Family TYRANNIDAE: Tyrant Flycatchers to follow the species account for Myiobius atricaudus.

    12. [pp. 373–420] Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Rheindt et al. 2008; Tello et al. 2009) have shown that the arrangement of subfamilies in the family Tyrannidae does not reflect their evolutionary relationships. These findings result in the following changes:

    Change the existing Notes under Family TYRANNIDAE: Tyrant Flycatchers to:

    Notes

    Classification and linear sequence of subfamilies follow Ohlson et al. (2008), Rheindt et al. (2008), Tello et al. (2009), and Ohlson et al. (2013).

    After the heading and Notes for Tyrannidae, insert the following new heading:

    Subfamily PIPRITINAE: Piprites.

  • Delete the heading Genus Incertae Sedis and Notes, move the heading Genus PIPRITES Cabanis and its included species account to follow this new heading, and insert the following Notes under Piprites:

    Notes

    Formerly considered to be part of the Pipridae (AOU 1983) or incertae sedis within the Tyranni (AOU 1998), but genetic data indicate that Piprites is closely related to the tyrant-flycatchers (Tello et al. 2009, Ohlson et al. 2013).

    Change Subfamily PLATYRINCHINAE: Tody-Tyrants and Flatbills to Subfamily PLATYRINCHINAE: Spadebills and insert the following:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1998) included several additional genera, but genetic data (Tello et al. 2009, Ohlson et al. 2013) indicate that species of Platyrinchus form a distinct clade sister to the rest of the tyrant-flycatchers (exclusive of Piprites).

    Move Genus PLATYRINCHUS Desmarest, its citation, and its included species to follow this heading.

    After the species account for Platyrinchus coronatus, insert the following new heading and Notes:

    Subfamily RHYNCHOCYCLINAE: Flatbills and Tody-Tyrants.

  • Notes

    Genera in this subfamily were formerly (AOU 1998) placed in the Elaeniinae or Platyrinchinae, but genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Tello et al. 2009) indicate that they form a clade separate from these subfamilies.

    Move Genus MIONECTES Cabanis, Genus LEPTOPOGON Cabanis, Genus PHYLLOSCARTES Cabanis and Heine, Genus PSEUDOTRICCUS Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Genus MYIORNIS Bertoni, Genus LOPHOTRICCUS Berlepsch, Genus ONCOSTOMA Sclater, Genus POECILOTRICCUS Berlepsch, Genus TODIROSTRUM Lesson, Genus CNIPODECTES Sclater and Salvin, Genus RHYNCHOCYCLUS Cabanis and Heine, and Genus TOLMOMYIAS Hellmayr, their citations and Notes, and their included species, in this sequence, to follow this heading.

    Move Subfamily ELAENIINAE: Tyrannulets, Elaenias, and Allies, and its included genera and species accounts, to follow the account for Tolmomyias flaviventris.

    Remove the heading Genus SUBLEGATUS Sclater and Salvin and its included species account from the Elaeniinae and insert them after the species account for Fluvicola pica in the Fluvicolinae. Insert the following Notes under Sublegatus:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the Elaeniinae but genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Tello et al. 2009) indicate that Sublegatus belongs in the Fluvicolinae.

    Move the heading Subfamily TYRANNINAE: Tyrannine Flycatchers and its included genera and species accounts to follow the account for Zimmerius vilissimus.

    Move the heading Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE: Fluvicoline Flycatchers and its included genera and species accounts to follow the account for Tyrannus savana.

    Remove the heading Genus MACHETORNIS Gray and its included species account from the Fluvicolinae and insert them after the species account for Pitangus sulphuratus in the Tyranninae. Insert the following Notes under Machetornis:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the Fluvicolinae but genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2008, 2013; Tello et al. 2009) indicate that Machetornis belongs in the Tyranninae.

    13. [p. 374] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Zucker et al. 2016) have shown that Phaeomyias is paraphyletic with respect to Nesotriccus. Change Phaeomyias murina to Nesotriccus murinus, place the account for this species after the species account for Nesotriccus ridgwayi, and insert the following Notes:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Phaeomyias but genetic data (Zucker et al. 2016) indicate that Phaeomyias is paraphyletic with respect to Nesotriccus, which has priority over Phaeomyias. More than one species is likely involved (Zucker et al. 2016).

    Remove the heading Genus PHAEOMYIAS Berlepsch and place its citation in the synonymy for Nesotriccus.

    14. [p. 377] Extralimital species Elaenia brachyptera is separated from E. chiriquensis, following Rheindt et al. (2015) and Remsen et al. (2018). In the species account for E. chiriquensis, change the distributional statement as follows: change “west of the Andes locally to northwestern Ecuador” to “west of the Andes locally in Colombia (except extreme southwest).” Insert the following Notes:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with extralimital species E. brachyptera Berlepsch, 1907 [Coopman's Elaenia], but separated based on differences in vocalizations (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Rheindt et al. 2015).

    15. [pp. 389–390] Extralimital species Mitrephanes olivaceus is separated from M. phaeocercus, following Remsen et al. (2018). In the species account for M. phaeocercus, remove reference to the olivaceus group from the distributional statement and change the Notes to:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with extralimital species M. olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894 [Olive Flycatcher], but see Webster (1968) and Remsen et al. (2018).

    16. [p. 393] A record of Empidonax affinis [Pine Flycatcher] in the United States is recognized. Add the following new paragraph to the end of the section on Distribution:

    Accidental in southern Arizona (Aliso Spring, Pima County, 28 May–7 July 2016; recordings, photos; Pyle et al. 2017).

    17. [p. 401] Extralimital species Fluvicola albiventer is separated from F. pica, following Remsen et al. (2018). In the species account for F. pica, remove references to the albiventer group from the distributional statement and change the Notes to:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with extralimital species F. albiventer (Spix, 1825) [Black-backed Water-Tyrant], but see Ridgely and Tudor (1994) and Remsen et al. (2018).

    18. [p. 430] Records of Vireo gundlachii [Cuban Vireo] in the United States are recognized. Add the following new paragraph to the end of the section on Distribution:

    Accidental in southern Florida (Fort Zachary Taylor Historic State Park, Key West, Monroe County, 19–24 April 2016; photos; Pyle et al. 2017; and Kawama Yacht Club, Monroe County, 29 April 2017; photos).

    19. [pp. 437–438] Extralimital species Vireo chivi is separated from V. olivaceus, following Battey and Klicka (2017). In the species account for V. olivaceus, remove references to the chivi group from the distributional statement and change the Notes to:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with extralimital species V. chivi (Vieillot, 1817) [Chivi Vireo], but genomic data indicate that broadly defined V. olivaceus is paraphyletic with respect to V. altiloquus (Battey and Klicka 2017).

    20. [pp. 441–442] The English name of Perisoreus canadensis is restored to Canada Jay. This name was used for P. canadensis in the first and second editions of the Check-list (AOU 1886, 1895), then used for P. c. canadensis when English names were used only for subspecies in the third and fourth editions (AOU 1910, 1931). Strickland (2017) outlined the history of the English names of this species, showing that the name Gray Jay (formerly used for P. c. obscurus) was incorrectly adopted when English names for species were reintroduced in the fifth edition (AOU 1957), despite guidelines calling for adoption of English names of nominate subspecies for polytypic species. In addition to its historical precedence, the name Canada Jay reflects the scientific name of the species and its main area of distribution, and is symmetrical with the geographical names of the other jays in this genus, Siberian Jay P. infaustus and Sichuan Jay P. internigrans. In the species account for P. canadensis, replace the second sentence of the existing Notes with the following: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) known as Gray Jay.

    21. [p. 485] Extralimital species Henicorhina anachoreta is separated from H. leucophrys, following Cadena et al. (2015) and Remsen et al. (2018). In the species account for H. leucosticta, remove the last sentence of the Notes. In the species account for H. leucophrys, change the Notes to:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with extralimital species H. anachoreta Bangs, 1899 [Hermit Wood-Wren], but separated on the basis of genetic, morphological, and behavioral differences, including asymmetrical response to playback, between these parapatric species (Caro et al. 2013, Burbridge et al. 2015, Cadena et al. 2015).

    22. [p. 489] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Alström et al. 2006, 2011; Irestedt et al. 2011) have shown that the genus Cettia is not monophyletic. These findings result in the following changes:

    After the heading Family CETTIIDAE: Bush-Warblers, remove the heading and citation for Cettia, and insert the following new heading:

    Genus HORORNIS Hodgson.

  • Horornis Hodgson, 1845, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 31. Types H. fortipes and H. flaviventris; restricted to H. fortipes (Seebohm, 1881, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 5: 133).

    Change Cettia diphone to Horornis diphone, place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Horornis, and insert the following at the beginning of the existing Notes: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Cettia, but genetic data (Alström et al. 2006, 2011; Irestedt et al. 2011) indicate that Cettia as previously constituted was polyphyletic and that H. diphone is not closely related to true Cettia.

    23. [pp. 495–496] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Sangster et al. 2010) have shown that the genus Luscinia is polyphyletic. These findings result in the following changes:

    After the species account for Copsychus malabaricus, delete the heading, citation, and Notes for Luscinia, and insert the following new heading, citation, and Notes:

    Genus LARVIVORA Hodgson.

  • Larvivora Hodgson, 1837, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 102. Type, by original designation, Motacilla cyane Pallas.

    Notes

    Larvivora, Cyanecula, and Calliope were formerly (AOU 1983, 1998; Chesser et al. 2010) considered congeneric with Luscinia, but genetic data (Sangster et al. 2010) indicate that Luscinia as previously constituted was polyphyletic and that species in these genera are not true Luscinia. These genera were formerly included in the family Turdidae, but genetic data (Sangster et al. 2010, Zuccon and Ericson 2010) indicate that they belong in the Muscicapidae.

    Change Luscinia cyane to Larvivora cyane and Luscinia sibilans to Larvivora sibilans, place the accounts for these species, in this sequence, under the heading and citation for Larvivora, and insert the following as new Notes or at the beginning of the existing Notes: Formerly placed in Luscinia. See comments under Larvivora.

    After the species account for Larvivora sibilans, insert the following new heading and citation:

    Genus CYANECULA Brehm.

  • Cyanecula C. L. Brehm, 1828, Isis von Oken 21:1280. Type, by monotypy, Motacilla svecica Linnaeus.

    Change Luscinia svecica to Cyanecula svecica, place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Cyanecula, and insert the following Notes:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Luscinia. See comments under Larvivora.

    After the species account for Cyanecula svecica, insert the following new heading and citation:

    Genus CALLIOPE Gould.

  • Calliope Gould, 1836, Birds Europe, pt. 2, pl. 118, text. Type, by monotypy, Calliope Lathamii Gould = Motacilla calliope Pallas.

    Change Luscinia calliope to Calliope calliope, place the account for this species under the heading and citation for Calliope, and insert the following Notes:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Luscinia. See comments under Larvivora.

    24. [pp. 615–622] Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Klicka and Spellman 2007, DaCosta et al. 2009, Klicka et al. 2014, Barker et al. 2015, Bryson et al. 2016) have shown that the genus Ammodramus is polyphyletic. These findings result in the following changes:

    After the species account for Ammodramus savannarum, insert the following new heading:

    Genus CENTRONYX Baird.

  • Remove the citations for Centronyx and Nemospiza from the synonymy of Ammodramus and place them under the heading for Centronyx. Add the following Notes at the end of the synonymy:

    Notes

    Centronyx and Ammospiza were formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered congeneric with Ammodramus, but genetic data (Klicka and Spellman 2007, DaCosta et al. 2009, Klicka et al. 2014, Barker et al. 2015, Bryson et al. 2016) indicate that Ammodramus as previously constituted was polyphyletic and that these species are not true Ammodramus.

    Change Ammodramus bairdii to Centronyx bairdii and Ammodramus henslowii to Centronyx henslowii, and place the accounts for these species, in this sequence, under the heading and Notes for Centronyx, and delete the existing Notes under Centronyx henslowii.

    After the species account for Centronyx henslowii, insert the following new heading and Notes:

    Genus AMMOSPIZA Oberholser.

  • Remove the citation for Ammospiza from the synonymy of Ammodramus and place it under the heading for Ammospiza. Remove the citations for Passerherbulus and Thryospiza from the synonymy of Ammodramus and place in the synonymy of Ammospiza. Add the following Notes at the end of the synonymy:

    Notes

    See comments under Centronyx.

    Change the generic names of Ammodramus leconteii and A. nelsoni to Ammospiza, change Ammodramus maritimus to Ammospiza maritima and Ammodramus caudacutus to Ammospiza caudacuta, add parentheses around the authority for A. nelsoni, and place the accounts for these species under the heading and Notes for Ammospiza, in the following sequence:

    • Ammospiza leconteii

    • Ammospiza maritima

    • Ammospiza nelsoni

    • Ammospiza caudacuta

    In the Notes under species accounts for Ammospiza leconteii, A. maritima, A. nelsoni, and A. caudacuta, replace the second sentence with: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in Ammodramus. See comments under Centronyx.

    25. [p. 642] Change the English name of Leistes militaris to Red-breasted Meadowlark, following Remsen et al. (2018). Add the following sentence at the beginning of the Notes: Formerly (e.g., AOU 1998) known as Red-breasted Blackbird.

    26. [p. 559–560] Playback experiments (Freeman and Montgomery 2017) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data (Escalante et al. 2009) indicate that the subspecies Geothlypis aequinoctialis chiriquensis is more closely related to G. semiflava than to G. aequinoctialis. Remove the species account for G. aequinoctialis and change the distributional statement and Notes for G. semiflava to:

    Distribution

    Resident [bairdi group] in Middle America from northeastern Honduras (Río Segovia [= Coco]) south in the Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica (locally also on the Pacific slope in the Arenal region) to western Panama (Bocas del Toro; [chiriquensis group] in southwestern Costa Rica (Cañas Gordas district in the southwest) and western Panama (Volcán de Chiriquí, in western Chiriquí); and [semiflava group] in South America in western Colombia and western Ecuador.

    Notes

    Groups: G. bairdi Ridgway, 1884 [Baird's Yellowthroat], G. chiriquensis Salvin, 1872 [Chiriqui Yellowthroat], and G. semiflava [Choco Yellowthroat]. Subspecies chiriquensis, formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) included in G. aequinoctialis (Gmelin, 1789) [Masked Yellowthroat], is now placed in G. semiflava on the basis of response to playback (Freeman and Montgomery 2017) and close genetic similarity (Escalante et al. 2009).

    27. [pp. 580–581] Ramphocelus costaricensis is treated as a subspecies of R. passerinii, following Freeman and Montgomery (2017). Remove the species account for R. costaricensis, change the English name for R. passerinii back (e.g., AOU 1983) to Scarlet-rumped Tanager, and modify the distributional statement in the account for R. passerinii as follows: change “on Pacific slope in Costa Rica (central Guanacaste, northern Puntarenas)” to “on Pacific slope in Costa Rica (central Guanacaste south) and Panama (Chiriquí and [formerly?] western Veraguas).”

    Replace the existing Notes with the following:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1998) treated as two species R. passerinii [Passerini's Tanager] and R. costaricensis Cherrie, 1891 [Cherrie's Tanager], but merged again (as in AOU 1983) based on similarities in song, plumage, and response to playback experiments (Freeman and Montgomery 2017), and a better understanding of the significance of differences in mitochondrial DNA, which had provided the rationale for the split.

    28. [pp. 594–596] Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Burns et al. 2014) have shown that Loxigilla is polyphyletic. These findings result in the following changes:

    Move the heading Genus MELOPYRRHA Bonaparte, its citation, and Notes to follow the species account for Euneornis campestris; change Loxigilla portoricensis to Melopyrrha portoricensis and Loxigilla violacea to Melopyrrha violacea; place the species accounts for M. portoricensis, M. nigra, and M. violacea, in this sequence, under the heading and citation for Melopyrrha; and insert the following Notes in the account for M. portoricensis:

    Notes

    Formerly, with M. violacea, placed in Loxigilla (AOU 1983, 1998), but genetic data (Burns et al. 2014) indicate that Loxigilla is polyphyletic and that these species are not true Loxigilla. Pyrrhulagra Bonaparte, 1850 (type species noctis), is an objective junior synonym for Loxigilla and is unavailable as a genus name for the group containing portoricensis, nigra, and violacea (contra Burns et al. 2016).

    Insert the following Notes in the account for M. violacea:

    Notes

    See comments under M. portoricensis.

    Move the heading Genus LOXIPASSER Bryant, its citation and Notes, and its included species account to follow the account for M. violacea, and move the heading Genus LOXIGILLA Lesson, its citation and Notes, and its included species accounts to follow the account for Loxipasser anoxanthus.

    29. [p. 592] Sporophila morelleti is treated as a species separate from S. torqueola, following Mason et al. (2018). In the species account for S. torqueola, change the English name to Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater, restrict the distributional statement to that for the torqueola group and the paragraph concerning escapes from California and Arizona, and replace the existing Notes with the following:

    Notes

    Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with S. morelleti, but separated on the basis of polyphyly in mtDNA, distinctness of nuclear DNA consistent with this, and differences in song and plumage commensurate with those in other closely related species of Sporophila (Mason et al. 2018).

    After the account for S. torqueola, insert the following new species account:

    • Sporophila morelleti (Bonaparte). Morelet's Seedeater.

    • Spermophila morelleti Bonaparte, 1850, Consp. Gen. Avium 1(2): 497. (Guatemala; type from Petén, Guatemala, fide Salvin and Godman, 1885, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves 1: 353.)

    Habitat

    Second-growth Scrub, Arid Lowland Scrub, Arid Montane Scrub, Riparian Thickets (0–2000 m; Tropical and lower Subtropical zones).

    Distribution

    [same as distribution for morelleti group]

    Notes

    The scientific name honors the collector of the type specimen, P. M. A. Morelet (Salvin and Godman 1885), but Bonaparte misspelled his name in the species description, an error perpetuated in the English name “Morellet's Seedeater” by AOU (1886), Ridgway (1901), and others. See comments under S. torqueola.

    30. [p. 690] Delete the account for Tadorna tadorna from the Appendix.

    31. [p. 524] Move Gracula religiosa from the main list to Appendix 1, following the account for Acridotheres javanicus, for reasons outlined below, and change its circumscription to follow most global references, beginning with Feare and Craig (1998) and Clements (2000), in considering G. indica to be a separate species from G. religiosa. In the Appendix, change the species account for G. religiosa to the following:

    • Gracula religiosa Linnaeus. Common Hill-Myna.

    • Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 108. (in Asia = Java.)

    This species, previously considered conspecific with G. indica (Cuvier, 1829) [Southern Hill-Myna], is resident from India (except southern peninsular), southeastern Asia, extreme southern China, and Hainan south to the Andaman and Nicobar islands and Indonesia. It was included on the main list in AOU (1998) as introduced and established in Puerto Rico, but it is now extremely rare in Puerto Rico and has probably not bred there for decades (Oberle 2010; M. Oberle and S. Colón, in litt.). Escapes have also been recorded in Hawaii and Florida, where it is listed as a non-established exotic and is unlikely to become established (Greenlaw et al. 2014, Pyle and Pyle 2017).

    32. [pp. 705 ff.] Make the following changes to the list of French names of North American birds:

    Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:

    • Tadorna tadorna Tadorne de Belon

    • Caprimulgus jotaka Engoulevent jotaka

    • OCEANITIDAE

    • Pseudobulweria rostrata Pétrel de Tahiti

    • Chondrohierax uncinatus Bec-en-croc de Temminck

    • Leptodon cayanensis Bec-en-croc de Cayenne

    • Elanoides forficatus Naucler à queue fourchue

    • Harpagus bidentatus Harpage bidenté

    • Busarellus nigricollis Buse à tête blanche

    • Dryobates pubescens Pic mineur

    • Dryobates nuttallii Pic de Nuttall

    • Dryobates scalaris Pic arlequin

    • Dryobates borealis Pic à face blanche

    • Dryobates villosus Pic chevelu

    • Dryobates albolarvatus Pic à tête blanche

    • Dryobates fumigatus Pic enfumé

    • Dryobates arizonae Pic d'Arizona

    • Dryobates stricklandi Pic de Strickland

    • Dryobates kirkii Pic à croupion rouge

    • Automolus exsertus Anabate du Chiriqui

    • ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE

    • Onychorhynchus coronatus Porte-éventail roi

    • Terenotriccus erythrurus Barbichon rougequeue

    • Myiobius villosus Barbichon hérissé

    • Myiobius sulphureipygius Barbichon à croupion jaune

    • Myiobius atricaudus Barbichon à queue noire

    • Oncostoma cinereigulare Bec-en-arc cendré

    • Oncostoma olivaceum Bec-en-arc de Lawrence

    • Cnipodectes subbrunneus Tyranneau brun

    • Rhynchocyclus brevirostris Tyranneau à bec court

    • Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Tyranneau olivâtre

    • Tolmomyias sulphurescens Tyranneau jaune-olive

    • Tolmomyias assimilis Tyranneau à miroir

    • Tolmomyias flaviventris Tyranneau à poitrine jaune

    • Nesotriccus murinus Tyranneau souris

    • Myiopagis cotta Élénie de Jamaïque

    • Machetornis rixosa Tyran querelleur

    • Contopus pallidus Moucherolle de Jamaïque

    • Sublegatus arenarum Moucherolle des palétuviers

    • Horornis diphone Bouscarle chanteuse

    • Larvivora cyane Rossignol bleu

    • Larvivora sibilans Rossignol siffleur

    • Cyanecula svecica Gorgebleue à miroir

    • Calliope calliope Rossignol calliope

    • Centronyx bairdii Bruant de Baird

    • Centronyx henslowii Bruant de Henslow

    • Ammospiza leconteii Bruant de LeConte

    • Ammospiza maritima Bruant maritime

    • Ammospiza nelsoni Bruant de Nelson

    • Ammospiza caudacuta Bruant à queue aiguë

    • Melopyrrha portoricensis Sporophile de Porto Rico

    • Melopyrrha violacea Sporophile petit-coq

    • Sporophila morelleti Sporophile de Morelet

    in APPENDIX (Part 1)

    • Gracula religiosa Mainate religieux

    Delete the following names:

    • Caprimulgus indicus Engoulevent jotaka

    • Pterodroma rostrata Pétrel de Tahiti

    • Leptodon cayanensis Milan de Cayenne

    • Chondrohierax uncinatus Milan bec-en-croc

    • Elanoides forficatus Milan à queue fourchue

    • Harpagus bidentatus Milan bidenté

    • Busarellus nigricollis Busarelle à tête blanche

    • Picoides scalaris Pic arlequin

    • Picoides nuttallii Pic de Nuttall

    • Picoides pubescens Pic mineur

    • Picoides fumigatus Pic enfumé

    • Picoides villosus Pic chevelu

    • Picoides arizonae Pic d'Arizona

    • Picoides stricklandi Pic de Strickland

    • Picoides borealis Pic à face blanche

    • Picoides albolarvatus Pic à tête blanche

    • Veniliornis kirkii Pic à croupion rouge

    • Phaeomyias murina Tyranneau souris

    • Myiopagis cotta Élénie de la Jamaïque

    • Sublegatus arenarum Tyranneau des palétuviers

    • Oncostoma cinereigulare Tyranneau à bec courbe

    • Oncostoma olivaceum Tyranneau de Lawrence

    • Cnipodectes subbrunneus Platyrhynque brun

    • Rhynchocyclus brevirostris Platyrhynque à bec court

    • Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Platyrhynque olivâtre

    • Tolmomyias sulphurescens Platyrhynque jaune-olive

    • Tolmomyias assimilis Platyrhynque à miroir

    • Tolmomyias flaviventris Platyrhynque à poitrine jaune

    • Onychorhynchus coronatus Moucherolle royal

    • Terenotriccus erythrurus Moucherolle rougequeue

    • Myiobius villosus Moucherolle hérissé

    • Myiobius sulphureipygius Moucherolle à croupion jaune

    • Myiobius atricaudus Moucherolle à queue noire

    • Contopus pallidus Moucherolle de la Jamaïque

    • Machetornis rixosa Moucherolle querelleur

    • Cettia diphone Bouscarle chanteuse

    • Luscinia sibilans Rossignol siffleur

    • Luscinia calliope Rossignol calliope

    • Luscinia svecica Gorgebleue à miroir

    • Luscinia cyane Rossignol bleu

    • Gracula religiosa Mainate religieux

    • Ammodramus bairdii Bruant de Baird

    • Ammodramus henslowii Bruant de Henslow

    • Ammodramus leconteii Bruant de LeConte

    • Ammodramus nelsoni Bruant de Nelson

    • Ammodramus caudacutus Bruant à queue aiguë

    • Ammodramus maritimus Bruant maritime

    • Geothlypis aequinoctialis Paruline équatoriale

    • Ramphocelus costaricensis Tangara du Costa Rica

    • Loxigilla portoricensis Sporophile de Porto Rico

    • Loxigilla violacea Sporophile petit-coq

    in APPENDIX (Part 1)

    • Tadorna tadorna Tadorne de Belon

    Recognize new family OCEANITIDAE and move the genera Oceanites, Pelagodroma, and Fregetta to this family as indicated by the text of this supplement. Move family HYDROBATIDAE and its included species to follow family OCEANITIDAE.

    Recognize new family ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE and move the genera Onychorhynchus, Terenotriccus, and Myiobius to this family as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Adopt the classification and linear sequence for families from TYRANNIDAE to OXYRUNCIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species in the families ACCIPITRIDAE and TYRANNIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species in the genera Picoides, Dendrocopos, and Dryobates (including one species formerly in Veniliornis) as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species in the genera Ammodramus, Centronyx, and Ammospiza as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Change the sequence of species in the genera Melopyrrha, Loxipasser, and Loxigilla as indicated by the text of this supplement.

    Proposals considered but not accepted by the Committee included merger of Taiga Bean-Goose Anser fabalis and Tundra Bean-Goose A. serrirostris, separation of Anas diazi from Mallard A. platyrhynchos, change of the English name of Rock Pigeon Columba livia back to Rock Dove, separation of Fork-tailed Swift Apus pacificus into four species, change of the English names of Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata and Common Moorhen G. chloropus, recognition of the genus Catharacta, separation of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea into two species, separation of Puffinus boydi from Audubon's Shearwater P. lherminieri, separation of Barn Owl Tyto alba into three species, elevation of Platyrinchinae and Rhynchocyclinae to family level, rearrangement of the linear sequence of species in the Tyrannidae, change of the treatment of Piprites by creating the new family Pipritidae, transfer of Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca to Curruca, separation of Toxostoma arenicola from LeConte's Thrasher T. lecontei, separation of Melozone occipitalis from White-eared Ground-Sparrow M. leucotis, and separation of Yellow Warbler Setophaga petechia into two species.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Normand David serves as the Committee's advisor for classical languages in relation to scientific names, and Michel Gosselin is the authority for French names. We thank R. C. Banks, S. M. Billerman, D. M. Bird, M. R. Browning, T. M. Burg, S. A. Colón, D. Dyer, B. G. Freeman, K. L. Garrett, D. D. Gibson, M. G. Harvey, P. Hess, M. J. Iliff, R. A. Jiménez, J. A. Jobling, P. E. Lehman, D. Lepage, N. A. Mason, J. Morlan, D. R. Norris, M. W. Oberle, K. A. Otter, A. P. Peterson, H. D. Pratt, L. Sandoval, T. S. Schulenberg, D. Strickland, and E. A. VanderWerf for assistance, suggestions, and comments. We dedicate this supplement to our colleague Jim Rising, who passed away on March 13, 2018.

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    © 2018 American Ornithological Society.
    R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker "Fifty-ninth Supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds," The Auk 135(3), (27 June 2018). https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-18-62.1
    Published: 27 June 2018
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