Palmer amaranth resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides has become an increasing problem to producers throughout the southeast region of the United States. Traditionally, these herbicides can be used as foliar-applied and soil-applied in glyphosate resistant (GR) cropping systems to control GR Palmer amaranth. Heavy reliance on PPO herbicides has contributed to the increased selection for PPO inhibitor-resistant (PPO-R) Palmer amaranth biotypes. Dose response greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of soil-applied flumioxazin, fomesafen, saflufenacil and sulfentrazone on a known susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Palmer amaranth biotype. Both R and S populations reached maximum germination at 14 d after treatment (DAT). The data from this study suggests complete control (100%) was achieved for the S biotype at 35 d after treatment (DAT) with all herbicides. The R biotype showed difference among herbicide treatments with flumioxazin and saflufenacil having similar responses in control and fomesafen and sulfentrazone resulting in less control of the R Palmer amaranth biotypes. The calculated relative resistance factor ranged from 3.5 to 6.0, and averaged 5X for the four herbicides. This research indicated that the PPO-R population was still responsive to all tested herbicides, but a low level of resistance was present.
Nomenclature: Flumioxazin; fomesafen; saflufenacil; sulfentrazone; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats