Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2008 A Review of Afrotropical Trichardis Hermann, 1906, and the Description of the First Oriental Representative of the Genus (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae)
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

The Afrotropical species of Trichardis Hermann, 1906 are reviewed, and the first species to be recorded from the Oriental Region is described. Brief descriptions are provided for all Afrotropical species studied, and keys supplied for their identification. The following new species are described: Afrotropical T. abdelkuri (Yemen), crassipala (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger), eburacta (Ivory Coast, Nigeria), effrena (Namibia, South Africa), glabra (Gambia), hesperia (Gambia, Senegal), lavignei (Somalia), malawi (Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe), mellina (Eritrea), ornata (Chad), similis (Malawi), spicata (Mozambique), zinidi (Kenya, Tanzania); Oriental T. indica (India). The previously described species are redescribed: T. apicalis Oldroyd, 1974; cribrata (Loew, 1858); grisescens Engel, 1924; katangaensis Oldroyd, 1970; leucocoma (Wulp, 1899); nigrescens (Ricardo, 1903); picta Hermann, 1906; pohli Geller-Grimm, 2002; rueppelii (Wiedemann, 1828); terminalis Oldroyd, 1974; testacea (Macquart, 1838); turneri Oldroyd, 1974. A lectotype of Hoplistomera leucocoma Wulp, 1899 has been designated. The following new synonymies have been established: Trichardis lucifer Oldroyd, 1974 = Trichardis picta Hermann, 1906; Triclis rufescens Austen, 1914 = Trichardis leucocoma (Wulp, 1899).

INTRODUCTION

Trichardis Hermann, 1906 is primarily an Afrotropical genus. It is also recorded for the Palaearctic Region where four species, including one also found in the Afrotropics, were catalogued by Lehr (1988) (i.e. T. afanasievae Lehr, 1964; cinctella Séguy, 1934; leucocomus (Wulp, 1899); mongolica Richter, 1972). While this genus has not been previously recorded from any other region, I have found an undescribed species from India (Oriental Region), which is described at the end of this paper. The systematic position of the genus, which has been placed in both the Laphriinae and Laphystiinae, has been discussed by Londt (2007a, b) who recommends that it be treated, together with Perasis Hermann, 1905 and Hoplistomerus Macquart, 1838, within the Laphriinae. These relatively small robber flies have been confused with the generally larger species of Hoplistomerus, and it is hoped that this paper will finally resolve any confusion that may still exist.

The development of our knowledge of Afrotropical Trichardis species may be summarised briefly as follows.

Wiedemann (1828) — Described Dasypogon Rüppelii from ‘Abyssinia’ (= Eritrea).

Macquart (1838) — Described Laphria testacea from ‘Du Cap’ (i.e. The Cape = Western Cape Province of South Africa).

Loew (1858) — Described Hoplistomera cribrata from ‘Caffraria’ (i.e. the eastern parts of Southern Africa).

Loew (1860) — Elaborated on his 1858 publication, providing a redescription of Hoplistomera cribrata.

Wulp (1899) — Described Hoplistomera leucocoma from Yemen, southern Arabia.

Ricardo (1903) — Described Hoplistomera nigrescens from Socotra Island (Yemen).

Hermann (1906) — Described the genus Trichardis, assigning two new species to it (picta and testacea), but neglected to designate a type species. He briefly discussed the group of genera subsequently included in the subfamily Laphystiinae.

Becker (1907) — Described the genus Strobilothrix for his new species Strobilothrix albipila from Algeria, in the Palaearctic Region.

Kertész (1909) — Catalogued two species of Trichardis (picta and testacea) from ‘Prom. bon. Sp.’ (i.e. the Cape of Good Hope).

Hermann (1920) — Designated Laphria testacea Macquart as type species of Trichardis listing six other species — picta, cribrata, leucocoma, grisescens, erythrogaster, and ? nigrescens. T. grisescens was at the time an unpublished manuscript name, while erythrogaster, described in Hoplistomerus, has subsequently been retained in Hoplistomerus (see Londt 2007b).

Engel (1924) — Provided a brief discussion of Trichardis before keying out (giving full descriptions) five species considered belonging to the genus (cribrata, grisescens, leucocoma, picta and testacea). In providing a description for grisescens he became author of the species even though he attributed the species to Hermann (see previous entry).

Efflatoun (1937) — Included T. leucocoma in an extensive review of Egyptian Asilidae (part of the Palaearctic fauna).

Hull (1962) — Redescribed Trichardis as part of his world revision of genera, giving Strobilothrix as a synonym and listing those species he considered to be congeneric. The Ethiopian (= Afrotropical) species listed were cribratus, grisescens (correctly attributed to Engel), nigrescens, picta, and testacea Hermann (he was apparently unaware of Macquart's species with the same name). Two Palaearctic species were also listed, one of which was leucocoma (with albipila as a synonym).

Oldroyd (1970) — In handling the Asilidae of the Congo Basin provided a brief discussion of Trichardis and the description of a new species, katangaensis.

Oldroyd (1974) — Published an introduction to the Asilidae of southern Africa. He briefly discussed Trichardis and described four new species (apicalis, lucifer, terminalis, and turneri) in an illustrated key to seven southern African taxa that included three previously described species (cribrata, picta and testacea).

Theodor (1980) — Included T. leucocoma in his review of Palestinian Asilidae focussing attention on genital morphology.

Oldroyd (1980) — Catalogued (under the tribe Laphriini of subfamily Laphriinae) the then accepted Afrotropical species apicalis, cribrata, grisescens, katangaensis, leucocoma, lucifer, nigrescens, picta, terminalis, testacea, and turneri—giving grisescens Hermann as a nomen nudum, albipila as a synonym of leucocoma, and testacea Hermann as a synonym and homonym of testacea Macquart. He placed Dasypogon Rüppelii in Laphria as L. rueppelii giving Sudan as the country of origin.

Geller-Grimm (1999) — Placed Dasypogon rueppelii (as rueppellii) in Trichardis.

Geller-Grimm (2002) — Described Trichardis pohli from Socotra Island and provided a redescription and records of nigrescens from the island.

There were, therefore, 13 valid species of Afrotropical Trichardis at the commencement of this study, i.e. those catalogued by Oldroyd (1980) and the species subsequently added by Geller-Grimm (1999, 2002). This study was prompted by an accumulation of many specimens in the collections of the Natal Museum and other institutions. At the completion of my study a further 13 undescribed species need to be added and one new synonym established bringing the number of Afrotropical species to 25. In addition, I believe this is a good opportunity to provide the description of the first representative of the genus from the Oriental Region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Specimens studied are housed in the Natal Museum (NMSA) unless otherwise indicated. Other institutions housing material are listed below, together with the abbreviations used in the text when citing these repositories and the names of the people who kindly assisted with information and/or loans.

AMGS —

Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (A. Kirk-Spriggs).

BMNH —

The Natural History Museum, London, UK (E. McAlister).

CASC —

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA (A. Carmichael).

HLMD —

Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany (W. Schneider).

MCMI —

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano [Milan], Italy (F. Rigato).

MNHN —

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (C. Daugeron).

MRAC —

Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium (E. De Coninck).

MZLU —

Zoological Museum, Dept. Zoology, Lund, Sweden (R. Danielsson).

MZUF —

Museo Zoologica de ‘La Specola’, Firenze [Florence], Italy (L. Bartolozzi).

NHMW —

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria (P. Sehnal).

NHRS —

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden (B. Viklund).

NMNH —

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA (F.Ch. Thompson).

OXUM —

Hope Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, UK (D. Mann).

SAMC —

South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa (M. Cochrane).

SANC —

National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa (R. Urban).

SMFD —

Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany (P. Haase).

ZMHB —

Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany (J. Ziegler).

ZSMC —

Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany (B. Stock).

Other collections cited in this paper, but not consulted personally are: NHCY (Natural History Collection, Yemen), COGG (Collection of Fritz Geller-Grimm, Frankfurt), CWWR (Collection of Wolfgang Wranik, Rostock).

A standard format has been employed in recording label information. For type specimens data is reproduced as it appears on labels, each label being demarcated by the use of single inverted commas, and each line of data separated by a spaced slash (/). Data that appear on the reverse side of a label are preceded by a ‘∼’ symbol. For other specimens cited, information is provided in a briefer format, but maintaining actual information provided, and in order that facilitates electronic data capture. Square brackets are used to add useful information or comment not found on labels. In this regard, co-ordinates are usually provided when these, or a quarter-degree grid reference, do not appear on a label. When a locality could not be traced or other information is not understood the wording may be followed by [?]. Specimens are arranged in geographical order (according to latitude) within countries, which are alphabetically ordered.

An adequate generic diagnosis is provided. If a fuller description is required that of Hull (1962) may be consulted. Species descriptions are brief and confined largely to characteristics that are considered helpful in the separation of species. Final illustrations were prepared from pencil drawings and do not depict setae that are not considered to have diagnostic value. Measurements were taken as follows: antennal postpedicel length (L) includes terminal style, depth (D) is taken at maximum level; wing length is from humeral crossvein to tip, breadth is taken at its maximum level; metathoracic (hind) femur length is measured in anterior view (excluding any part of coxa or trochanter), height is taken at its maximum level. Morphological terminology generally follows McAlpine (1981).

TAXONOMY

Genus Trichardis Hermann, 1906

  • Trichardis Hermann, 1906: 137. Type species: Laphria testacea Macquart, 1838, by designation of Hermann (1920: 177).

  • Strobilothrix Becker, 1907: 42–43. Type species: Strobilothrix albipila Becker, 1907 [Hoplistomera leucocoma Wulp. 1899], by monotypy.

  • Diagnosis (Figs 1–4): Laphriine asilids (wing length <7 mm) with the following combination of characters. Head: Antennal postpedicel moderately elongate to clavate; proboscis small and hardly protruding beyond lower epistomal margin. Thorax: Postpronotal lobe with at least a few strongly developed macrosetae; anatergal macrosetae usually present; scutellum with weakly developed marginal macrosetae; postmetacoxal area membranous; hind femora robust (length:breadth ratio <4), with a swollen appearance and usually equipped with ventral tubercles; hind leg of male usually lacking a tibial spur; vein R2+3 bent anteriorly at tip and joining R1 just before or at C; cell r5 always closed; C continues fairly strongly along wing margin to Cu+A1 before becoming much weaker along anal cell and completely absent from alula. Abdomen: Terga with discal setae beyond T1 and lacking obvious golden setation. ♂ genitalia: Epandrium in dorsal view hardly if at all incised (i.e. not divided into lobes); hypandrium usually absent or at best poorly developed; gonocoxites usually closely associated ventrally and rarely with a median projection (when present it is short and medially directed) and commonly with mediodistal macrosetae.

  • Notes: Hermann's original description makes reference to ‘Hoplistomera’ and includes figs 5 (antenna) and 7 (wing), but no indication of which species was involved. Hermann (1920) separates Trichardis from Strobilothrix on the basis of femoral setation. Oldroyd (1970: 247) says the genus is not easily separated from Hoplistomerus and provides a brief discussion of the characterisation of these taxa.

Figs 1–4.

Trichardis species: (1–3) T. testacea (Macquart, 1838): (1) dorsal view of entire male, (2) lateral view of entire male, (3) wing; (4) T. effrena sp. n., wing. See text for measurements.

f01_171.jpg

AFROTROPICAL SPECIES

Trichardis abdelkuri sp. n.
Figs 5, 6

  • Etymology: Named after the type locality, Abd el Kuri I. [also written Abd al Kuri], Yemen.

  • Description (based on holotype in good condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose except for central face, frons and ocellar tubercle, setae black, pale yellow and white. Antennal scape dark red-brown, white setose except for a single pale yellow ventrally situated macroseta (right side has an additional slender black ventral macroseta); pedicel brown-yellow, setae white except for 1 or 2 longish black ones; postpedicel and style dark red-brown, postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=4.1:1) with few pale setulae dorsally. Mystax white with some black setae along epistomal margin and below antennal sockets. Ocellar tubercle with 4 pale yellowish macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, largely apruinose with gold-silver pruinose parts, fine setae whitish, more major setae pale yellow. Postpronotum largely apruinose except for narrow medial part, mesonotum largely apruinose except for margins, macrosetae shiny pale yellow, setulae shiny white. Scutellum black, entirely apruinose. Anepisternum with slender pale yellow posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except for small area anteroventrally. Proepimeron anteriorly pruinose, posteriorly apruinose; katepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose; anepisternum pruinose except for anterodorsal part. Legs: Dark red-brown to black, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur uniformly dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.8:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed, major setae pale yellowish. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.3×2.2 mm. Costal vein extends around most of wing margin, weak along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell largely lacking microtrichiae (a few present centrally), cell r5 with microtrichiae limited mainly to distal half.

  • Abdomen: Anterior four terga dark red-brown, terminal two visible segments and hypopygium orange, apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose distolateral margins, setae transparent whitish. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose posterior margins laterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 5, 6): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with mediodistally arranged macrosetae, mediodistal projection fairy slender with slightly upturned distal end. Gonostylus slender with straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight with small terminal tubules.

  • Variation: The paratype ♂ is slightly teneral and displays a few minor differences in coloration. Both scape and pedicel are yellowish brown and both have major setae black. Macrosetae of thorax and abdomen are transparent, lacking colour. The ♀ paratypes are similar to the holotype, but have the first five terga dark red-brown.

  • Holotype: YEMEN: Abd el Kuri I.: ♂ ‘Abdelkuri I: [12â05′N:52°20′E] / Jebel Saleh [?], / 500–1500 ft / 7.v.1967 / K. Guichard’, ‘Brit. Mus. / 1967–455’ (BMNH).

  • Paratypes: 1♂ 2♀ with same label data.

  • Distribution and biology: Known only from the type series. The species may be confined to the island of Abd el Kuri and has so far only been collected in May. No biological information is available.

  • Similar species: T. abdelkuri is superficially very similar to nigrescens, but the species can be reliably separated on male genital features. Although I have seen relatively few specimens of both species, all specimens of abdelkuri have mesonotal, anepisternal and ocellar setae yellowish, while these setae are mostly black in nigrescens (some variation exists). These species are also somewhat similar to pohli, but easily separated on size and male genital form.

Trichardis apicalis Oldroyd, 1974
Figs 7, 8, 58

  • Trichardis apicalis: Oldroyd 1974: 120; 1980: 355 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on — holotype in good condition):

  • Head: Uniformly brown-orange. Antenna uniformly brown-orange, yellowish setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.2:1). Mystax uniformly yellowish on slightly and evenly convex face. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis brown-orange with dark red-brown distal half, palpi brown-orange.

  • Thorax: Brown-orange, dorsal parts slightly darker; mesonotal macrosetae orange, fine setae white or pale yellow. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose lateral and posterior margins. Scutellum apruinose. Anepisternum with yellow posterior macroseta; dorsal half pruinose, ventral half apruinose. Proepimeron dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose; katepisternum dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose; anepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose. Legs: Brown-orange except for terminal tarsomeres and distal parts of hind tibiae; pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur brown-orange, length:height ratio 3.5:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.0×2.1 mm. Costal vein strongly developed around most of wing margin, weak to absent along anal cell and alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell entirely lacking microtrichiae, cell r5 with microtrichiae only in distal half.

  • Abdomen: Uniformly brown-orange, fine white setose. T2 orange, apruinose except for small areas of silver pruinescence on posterolateral corners.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 7, 8): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple in structure. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with a few moderately developed mediodistal setae; mediodistal projection stout with upturned and darkly sclerotised distal end. Gonostylus stout with upturned, slightly clavate distal end. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight, with small, slender tips.

  • Holotype (examined): MOZAMBIQUE; ♂ ‘Holo- / type’ [circular, red edge], ‘Lourenço Marques. [Maputo, 25°57′S:32°34′E] / Sept. – Dec., 1913. / H. A. Junod.’, ‘C. J. Wainwright / collection / B. M. 1948–488’. ‘Trichardis / apicalis Oldr. /det. H. Oldroyd 1972 /Holotype’ [white] (BMNH).

  • Paratypes (examined): MOZAMBIQUE: 3♂ 1♀ same data as holotype (BMNH); 1♂ 1♀ same data as holotype but ‘Jan. – Mar., 1914’ (BMNH); 1♂ ‘Para- / type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘Lourenço Marques / Sept.– Dec., 1913, / H.A. Junod’, ‘C. J. Wainwright / collection. / B.M. 1948-488’ (BMNH). SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ ‘South Africa, Natal Prov / Zululand. 4 mi S. Ndumu / Game Res. Camp (2632Cc) / Dec. 1, 1971; ME&BJ Irwin / dry scrub forest; 160 ft’ (NMSA); 7♂ 1♀ 1? ‘South Africa, Natal Prov / Zululand. 20 mi S. Ndumu / Game Res. Camp (2732Aa) / Nov. 29, 1971; ME&BJ Irwin / dry scrub forest; 320 ft’, ‘Trichardis / apicalis Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd 1973 / Paratypes’ (NMSA); 3♂ 3♀ ‘Ndumu Reserve [26°52′S:32°15′E], / Ingwavuma District / Tongaland, S. Africa / B. & P. Stuckenberg / 1–10 December 1963’, ‘Trichardis / apicalis Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd 1973 / Paratypes’ (NMSA); 2♀ ‘Para- / type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘Ndumu Reserve / Ingwavuma dist. / Zululand, Natal / South Africa / 1–10.xii.63’, ‘collectors / B. & P. Stuckenberg’ (BMNH).

  • Other material examined: BOTSWANA: 1♀ Ghanzi-Maun Rd, 2122AB, 19.xii.1984, Johnson; 1♂ Palapye [22°33′S:27°08′E], 4.iii.1934, Ogilvie (BMNH). MOZAMBIQUE: 1♀ Nampula [15°07′S:39°15′E], 29.ii.1982, Feijen; 1♂ Masiene [16°24′S:39°54′E], xii.1923, Lawrence (SAMC); 1♂ Nyaka [16°40′S:32°42′E], ii.1924, Lawrence (SAMC); 1♂ Mabote [22°02′S:34°08′E], 27–30.iii.1964, Moore (NMNH); 2♂ Massangwa [?Massangera, 22°02′S:34°08′E], 1–8.ii.1964, Moore (NMNH); 1♀ Inhambane [23°51′S:35°29′E], i.1924, Lawrence (SAMC); 4♂ 4♀ Chimonzo [24°58′S:33°17′E], 21–27.ii.1964, Moore (NMNH); 1? Lorenzo Marques [= Maputo, 25°57′S:32°34′E], 1909, De Azevedo (NMNH); 7♂ 10♀ Chiqubo [?], 11–20.ii.1964, Moore (NMNH). NAMIBIA: 1♂ 1♀ Waterberg Nat. Park Entrance, 20°32′S:17°20′E, 20.iii.1984, Stuckenberg & Londt, Acacia thornveld; 1♂ Etosha-Pan, Namutoni [18°48′S:16°59′E], 23.i.1993, Koch (ZMHB). SOUTH AFRICA: 1♀ Messina Nat. Res., 22°24′54″S:30°05′12″E, 487 m, 14.ii.2005, Londt & Dikow, dry woodland Sand R.; 1♂ 2♀ Soutpansberge Soutpan, 2229CD, 23–24.ii.1980, Londt & Schoeman, bushveld vegetation; 1♂ 37 km N Louis Trichardt, 2229DD, i.1975, Stuckenberg, arid bushveld; 1♀ Wyllies Poort, 10 km N Louis Trichardt, 2229DD, 22.ii.1980, Londt & Schoeman; 1♀ Lapalala Nat. Res., 23°52′52″S:28°20′19″E, 1072 m, 16.ii.2005, Londt & Dikow, Acacia Combretum woodland; 4♂ Mogol Nat. Res., Ellisras Dist., 23°58′S:27°45′E, 19–23.xi.1979, van Tonder, Kok, Prinsloo & Mansell (SANC); 2♂ Ndumu Game Reserve, 26°55′S:32°19′E, 3.ii.1995, Koch (ZMHB); 1♂ Ndumu Game Reserve Rest Camp, 2632CD, 95 m, 15.ii.1978, Brothers, Malaise trap; 1♀ Ndumu Reserve, Ingwavuma Dist. [27°08′S: 31°59′E], 1–10.xii.1963, Stuckenberg; 1♂ 32 km N Jozini, 2732AC, 229 m, 28.xi.1971, Irwin. ZIMBABWE: 2♂ Lusulu [18°04′S:27°50′E], 19.xi.1963, Phelps; 1♀ Hartley [18°08′S:30°09′E], xii.1930, Cuthbertson (BMNH); 1♀ Sawmills [19°35′S:28°01′E], 10.ii.1923, Swinburn & Stevenson; 1♂ 1♀ Sawmills, 26.xii.1923, Stevenson (SAMC); 1♀ Sawmills, 14.xi.1924, Stevenson.

  • Distribution and biology: The species, a southern African endemic, has a fairly wide distribution (Fig. 58), occurring in the northern parts of Namibia eastwards through Botswana, Zimbabwe, the northern parts of South Africa and Mozambique. Adults fly between November and March (Table 1). While little information is available concerning habitat, labels suggest that the species is found in dry to arid woodland dominated by Acacia trees.

  • Similar species: T. apicalis has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with grisescens, ornata, picta, terminalis, testacea, turneri and zinidi. The species is, however, most similar to zinidi.

Trichardis crassipala sp. n.
Figs 9, 10

  • Etymology: From Latin crassus (thick) and palus (stake/stick). Refers to enlarged gonostyli.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black. Antenna dark red-brown to black, black setose except for a few small white setae; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.7:1). Mystax white, a few black macrosetae along epistomal margin, on slightly convex and mostly shiny apruinose face. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark redbrown to black.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to blackish, mostly apruinose, pruinose areas silvery. Postpronotum strongly silver pruinose medially, extensively apruinose laterally, mesonotum apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae pale yellow, fine setae white. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron intensively pruinose, posterior part apruinose; katepisternum anteriorly apruinose, posteriorly pruinose; anepisternum pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.7:1, ventral tubercles moderately developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur.

  • Wing: 4.2×1.6 mm. Costal vein moderately developed along entire wing margin, but weak along anal cell and absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose (except for parts of some proximally situated cells)—discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown anteriorly becoming progressively more brown-orange posteriorly. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose posterior margin laterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 9, 10): Epandrium in lateral view significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger fairly long and strongly dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium moderately developed, with characteristic bilobed shape distally. Gonocoxite in ventral view with moderately well-developed median projection distally and lacking macrosetae except for a group of small ones on median projection; mediodistal projection stout, broad, laterally flanged, strongly sclerotised with characteristic shape. Gonostylus short, slender, largely hidden by gonocoxite. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight with moderately well-developed trifurcate tip.

  • Holotype: BURKINA FASO: ♂ ‘Ouaga. [Ouagadougou, 12°25′N:01°30′W] 8.vii.69 / Haute — Volta / J.G. Pointel’ (MNHN).

  • Paratypes: BURKINA FASO: 2♂ 1♀ same data as holotype (MNHN). MALI: 1♂ 1♀ ‘Coll. Mus. Tervuren / Mali: Kassarola [?] / 31.vii.1970 / G. Pierrard’ (MRAC). NIGER: 5♂ 3♀ ‘Museum Paris / Rég. O. De Zinder / Tibiri-Maradi [13°35′N:08°10′E] / (Mission Tilho) / Dr R. Gaillard 1910’, ‘Juillet’, ‘Aout’ (MNHN); 1♂ 3♀ ‘Museum Paris / Rég. O. De Zinder / Maradi / (Mission Tilho) / Dr R. Gaillard 1910’, ‘Juillet’ (MNHN). SUDAN: 3♂ 3♀ ‘11.v.55 38 / Southern Sudan / Equatoria Province / Juba [04°57′N:31°35′E] / P. Blasdale. 34–1955’ (OXUM).

  • Other material examined: There are three specimens of undetermined sex from Niger (same labels as above) in MNHN.

  • Distribution and biology: The species is widely distributed in Africa north of the Equator, being found in West Africa (Mali, Burkina Faso), Central Africa (Niger) and East Africa (Sudan). Adults fly between May and August (no records for June), the northern hemisphere summer (Table 1). No information is available concerning habitat preference, but locality information suggests that this is a savannah species.

  • Similar species: A member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be easily separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. crassipala is most similar to similis in that both species have well-developed hypandria.

Trichardis cribrata (Loew, 1858)
Figs 11, 12, 59

  • Hoplistomera cribrata: Loew 1958: 357; 1860: 193.

  • Trichardis cribrata: Engel 1924: 108–109; Oldroyd 1970: 249 (fig. 28, mesopleuron); 1974: 118; 1980: 355 (catalogue).

  • Trichardis cribratus: Hull 1962: 97.

  • Redescription (based on Mhlopeni Nat. Res. male in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, finely silver pruinose except for central parts of face. Antenna orange-brown, black setose except for a few small pale yellow setae; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.2:1). Mystax uniformly pale yellowish. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, silver pruinose except for some bare areas. Postpronotum medially strongly silver pruinose, laterally apruinose, mesonotum apruinose except for silver lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae yellow-white, fine setulae yellowish. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, extensively silver pruinose except for apruinose area anteroventrally. Proepimeron anteriorly pruinose, posteriorly apruinose; katepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose; anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown, tibiae orange-brown proximally, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.4:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.0×1.6 mm. Costal vein moderately developed around most of wing margin, weakening along anal cell and absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown with narrow brown-orange posterior margins, fine pale white setose. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for narrow weakly silver pruinose posterior margins laterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 11, 12): Epandrium in lateral view significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with a row of about 7 mediodistally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection long, well-developed and with slightly upturned sclerotised distal end. Gonostylus stout with relatively straight and broadly rounded apex. Aedeagal prongs small, more or less straight and with small trifurcate tip.

  • Type specimens: Despite an extensive search, I have not been able to trace the where-abouts of the type material. Loew's (1858) short description, in Latin, was based on ‘♂ & ♀ ’ from ‘Caffraria (Wahlb.)’. As no holotype was designated his specimens must be considered syntypes. There is only one species from southern Africa that answers to the description, so I am confident that the material here assigned to this taxon has been correctly allocated, and that there is little need for a neotype to be designated.

  • Type locality designation: Loew's material, collected by Wahlberg, came from ‘Caffraria’, a term used to cover much of the eastern part of present day Southern Africa. As Wahlberg passed through the KwaZulu-Natal midlands, I hereby designate the Mhlopeni Nat. Res., SE of Muden, as type locality as a good series has been collected there.

  • Specimens studied: LESOTHO: 5♂ 3♀ Mamathes [29°08′S:27°51′E], 31.xii.1947 (1♀ ), 4.i.1948 (1♂), 9.i.1949 (1♂), 9.xii.1949 (1♂), 8.i.1950 (1♂ 1♀ ) 1.i.1952 (1♂ 1♀), Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 1♀ Mahlatsa [29°13′S:28°00′E], 30.xii.1951, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS). MOZAMBIQUE: 1♂ Maqudé [?Magude, 25°02′S:32°40′E], 29.ii.1964, Moore (NMNH); 3♂ 1♀ Maoamba [25°36′S:32°15′E], 9–12.iii.1964, Moore (NMNH). SOUTH AFRICA: 1♀ Pietersburg [Polokwane, 23°54′S:29°27′E], 8.xii.1965, Hoffmann (SANC); 1♀ Groenfontein, 35 km E Thabazimbi, 24°34′S:27°45′E, 27.xi.1980, Kok (SANC); 1♀ Ben Alberts Nat Res, Thabazimbi, 24°37′S:27°23′E, 24–28.xi.1980, Kok (SANC); 1♂ Sondéla Nat. Res., 24°54.127′S:28°25.191′E, 1086 m, 7–14.xi.2003, Londt, Acacia savannah; 1♀ Skukuza [24°59′S:31°36′E], 23.xi.1959 (BMNH); 1♀ Salietjie Pad, KNW [= KNP - Kruger National Park], 27 km from Skukuza, 8.xi.1960, van Schalkwyk (SANC); 1♂ 1♀ Kruger National Park, N of Sabie R., 25.xi.1959, Munro & v. Bruggen (SANC); 1♀ Lydenburg Dist. [25°06′S:30°27′E], 1896, Krantz; 1♀ 1? Wonderboom [25°36′S:29°20′E], 21.xi.1915, Roberts; 1♀ W. boom [Wonderboom] Pretoria, xii.1915, Munro (NMNH); 2♂ 1♀ Swartruggens Marico [25°39′S:26°42′E], 15.i.1921, Brauns; 1♂ Zwartruggens Marico, 15.i.1921, Brauns (NMNH); 1♂ Rustenburg [25°40′S:27°15′E], 3.xii.1961 (BMNH); 2♂ 4♀ Pretoria [25°44′S: 28°11′E], 28.xii.1912 (1♂), 16.xii.1913 (1♀ ), 12.xii.1914 (1♀ ), 2.xii.1915 (1♂), 18.xii.1915 (1♀ ), xii.1929 (1♀ ), Munro (NMNH); 1♀ 1? Pretoria, 16.xii.1913, Munro (SANC); 1♂ 2♀ Hennops R., 20 km W Pretoria, 25°47′S:27°55′E, 17.xii.1981, Oberprieler (SANC); 1♀ Brnkh.spr. [Bronkhorstspruit, 25°48′S:28°44′E], 15.xii.1906; 1♂ 2♀ Halfway House [25°59′S:28°07′E], 22.vii.1981, Elferink; 1♂ Lichtenburg [26°09′S:26°10′E] (MCMI); 3♂ 2♀ Lichtenburg, Brauns (ZSMC); 1♀ ‘Sammlung F. Hermann’ [no locality data, but probably from Lichtenburg] (ZSMC); 1♀ Kroonstad [27°40′S:27°14′E], O.R.C. [Orange River Colony = Free State Province], Eckersley (BMNH); 2♂ 1♀ 1? M'fongosi [28°42′S:30°48′E], x.1911 (1?), iii.1917 (1♀ ), iv–xi.1934 (2♂), Jones (SAMC); 2♂ 3♀ Weenen [28°51′S:30°05′E], i.1925 (2♂ 2♀ ), iii.1925 (1♀ ), Thomasset (BMNH); 1♀ Koornspruit Weenen, 2830CC, 24.xi.1981, Milton, Acacia tortilis; 1♂ 1♀ Colenso, 2829DB, 7.x.1981, Londt; 1♂ 1♀ 20 km W Tugela Ferry, 2830CA, 26–27.ii.1977, Miller, Malaise trap; 9♂ 4♀ c. 10 km E Estcourt [29°00′S:29°53′E], 13.xii.1995, Londt & Cradock, Acacia woodland; 1♂ 1♀ Estcourt, 1894, Haviland (SAMC); 1♂ 3♀ Estcourt, xii.1896 (2♀ in BMNH); 1♂ 1♀ Estcourt, 1897, Marshall (BMNH); 6♂ 2♀ Mhlopeni Nat. Res. 15 km SE Muden, 2930AB, 22.xii.1983, Londt; 2♀ Aliwal North [30°42′S:26°42′E], 1326 m, 1–13.i.1923, Turner (BMNH); 1♀ Umdala Fort Beaufort [32°48′S:26°39′E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 1♂ Willowmore [33°17′S:23°29′E], 10.i.1907, Brauns (ZSMC); 2♂ 2♀ 5 km NE Kenton on Sea, 3326AD, 29.xii.1985, Londt, bush & grass & stream bed; 1♂ 1♀ Kangwane, Thomeni Res. [?], 16.i.1992, Acacia veld. ZIMBABWE: 1♀ Rekomitjie [16°08′S:29°24′E], i.1988, Phelps, Mopane woodland; 1♀ Mt Selinda [20°25′S:32°42′E], xii,1935, van Son.

  • Distribution and biology: The species is a southern African endemic, distributed widely within the eastern half of the subregion (eastwards of about 23°E), but does not appear to occur along the subtropical and tropical eastern coast (Fig. 59). Adults fly during the summer months of October and March (there is a record for July that needs verification) (Table 1). While little information is available concerning habitat, labels suggest that the species is found mainly in Acacia savannah and woodland.

  • Similar species: Oldroyd (1970) compared katangaensis with cribrata, but these species are in fact quite different in many respects. T. cribrata is a member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. cribrata appears to be a fairly distinctive species within the group.

Trichardis eburacta sp. n.
Figs 13, 14

  • Etymology: From Latin ebur (ivory) and acta (shore). Refers to the country of Ivory Coast, where most of the type specimens were collected.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, fine silver pruinose except for much of face and frons. Antenna dark red-brown to black, black setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.7:1). Mystax white with black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown to black.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, silver pruinose except for some shiny apruinose areas. Postpronotum medially silver pruinose, laterally apruinose; mesonotum largely apruinose except for lateral and posterior margins. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally and posteriorly pruinose, anteroventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose except for posterior margin, katepisternum pruinose except for anterior margin, anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown to black, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown to black, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.3×1.7 mm. Costal vein well-developed and extending along much of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown to black anteriorly becoming progressively red-brown posteriorly. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for silver pruinose posterior margins laterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 13, 14): Epandrium in lateral view significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed, lower valve long. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view with sharp median projection dorsodistally and without distally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection moderately well developed with fairly straight, broadly rounded distal end. Gonostylus fairly stout, jutting out beyond medial process of gonocoxite, with slightly upturned distal end. Aedeagal base with a short finger-like projection laterally; prongs more or less straight, stout, with small trifurcate tip.

  • Holotype: IVORY COAST: ♂ ‘Côte D'Ivoire: 28 km / W Bouaflé. Maraoué / Nat Park 19.iv.1989 / 06°59′N:: 05°54′W / JGH Londt. Woodland / and forest margins’ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes: IVORY COAST: 1♂ 3♀ same data as holotype; 1♂ 1♀ ‘Côte D'Ivoire: Comoé / Nat. Park. ca. 7 km NW / Gansé. 17.iv.1989 / 08°39′N:: 03°56′W / Viewpoint 2 J Londt / riverine forest area’; 3♂ ‘Côte D'Ivoire: Comoé / Nat. Park. nr where / Lolo riv meets Comoé / 08°44′N:: 03°50′W / Viewpoint 4 J Londt / 17.iv.1989 riverside’. NIGERIA: 1♀ ‘N. Nigeria / Zaria, / Samaru. [11°10′N:07°37′E] / 18.vi.1968’, ‘J. C. Deeming / m.v. trap.’ (BMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: The species has only been found in West Africa. Adults fly during the summer months of April and June (Table 1). Little information is available concerning habitat, however, I collected specimens in woodland and open areas adjacent to forests.

  • Similar species: T. eburacta is a member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata, and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. eburacta appears to be a fairly distinctive species, however it is most similar to crassipala and similis in that the hypandrium is better developed than in other species and the form of the gonocoxites is very similar.

Trichardis effrena sp. n.
Figs 4, 15, 16, 59

  • Etymology: From Latin effrena (unrestrained). Refers to the absence of the costal vein along the posterior margin of the wing.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Brown-orange, entirely fine silver pruinose. Antenna brown-orange except for distal part of postpedicel and style which are red-brown, setae orange; postpedicel clavate (L:D=2.4:1). Mystax uniformly shiny orange. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis proximally orange-brown distally dark red-brown, palpi orange-brown.

  • Thorax: Brown-orange with some red-brown areas, extensively fine silver pruinose. Postpronotum medially pruinose, laterally apruinose; mesonotum brown-orange with red-brown dorsal stripe and laterally situated broad bands, apruinose except for narrow lateral and posterior margins. Scutellum entirely apruinose. Anepisternum with orange posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except for small anteroventral area. Proepimeron pruinose; katepisternum red-brown pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Brown-orange (femora, tarsomere 5 and hind tibiae darker), pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange-brown, length:height ratio 3.4:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.6×1.8 mm. Costal vein strongly developed only as far as wing tip, very weak or absent along entire posterior margin of wing. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal and r5 cell almost entirely lacking microtrichiae.

  • Abdomen: Brown-orange, macrosetae orange, fine setulae pale yellow. T2 brown-orange, apruinose except for strong silver pruinose spot posterolaterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 15, 16): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with a distal row of about 7 macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout, with strongly upturned and scerotised distal end. Gonostylus fairly stout, with broadly rounded, fairly straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs small, more or less straight and with a small terminal end.

  • Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: ♂ ‘South Africa: N Cape / Witsand Nature Reserve / 28°33.975′S:022°29.279′E / 1150 m J Londt & T Dikow / 31.i.2004 Acacia mixed / woodland. Reception area’ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes: NAMIBIA: 1♀ ‘Brit. S. W. - Africa / Kalahari / L. Schultze S.’, ‘Hoplistomere / cribrata / Lw / Kalahari / 1968. a. / Det Dr. F. Hermann [sideways]’ (ZMHB). SOUTH AFRICA: 2♂ 2♀ ‘S:Africa: NW Province / Molopo Game Reserve / Phiri Camp area / 25°46′43″S:22°55′53″E / 990 m 14.iii.2003 J Londt / Acacia Erogrostis savannah’; 1♀ ‘S Africa: N Cape #15 / 14 km S of Hotazel / 27 19′S:22 54′E 1050 m / Date: 14.iii.1991 / Londt & Whittington / Ga-Mogara River bed’; 1♀ ‘South Africa: N Cape / Vaalbos National Park / Riverside Picnic site 1055 m / 28°27.470′S 024°19.994′E / 28–29.i.2004 JGH Londt & / T Dikow Acacia savannah’; 1♂ ‘S Africa: N Cape / Witsand Farm, 28°32′S/ 22°30′E. 2–4.ii.1979 / B/ Lamoral, I Bampton / J. Barnley. Malaise tr’; 4♂ 4♀ ‘South Africa: N Cape / Witsand Nature Reserve / 28°33.615′S 022°29.105′E / 1160 m J Londt & T Dikow / 31.i.– 1.ii.2004 Acacia / savannah & white dune area’; 2♂ 1♀ ‘South Africa: N Cape / Witsand Nature Reserve / 28°33.673′S 022°29.656′E / 1200 m J Londt & T Dikow / 30.i.– 1.ii.2004 Acacia / savannah. Red sandy ridge’; 6♂ 1♀ same data as holotype.

  • Other material examined: I have seen the following specimen, identified as testacea by Engel, which appears to belong to effrena. Because the locality is so far removed from the Northern Cape records, I refrain from including the specimen in the type series. ZIMBABWE: 1♂ ‘Victoria Falls [17°55′S:25°51′E], / 4.i.1920 / Rhodesia / Museum’, Pres. by / Imp. Inst. Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1930–298.’, ‘Trichardis testacea / Merh. / Dr. E. O. Engel det.’ (BMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is a southern African endemic, being found in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in western Zimbabwe (Fig. 59). While I hesitate to give type status to the single Zimbabwean specimen because of its isolated position relative to the other records, I am fairly confident that the specimen is correctly labelled and identified. Botswana is generally poorly sampled and so this kind of apparently disjuct distributional pattern should not cause undue concern. Other asilid species have been shown to have a similar distributional pattern. For example Londt (2004) demonstrated that Laphystotes albicans (Engel, 1932) is similarly distributed. Adults of the new species are active during summer and have been collected between January and March (Table 1). This species is associated with open Acacia savannah and mixed woodland. All the specimens captured at Witsand Nat. Res. were found resting on sandy pathways.

  • Similar species: Although sharing a number of characters with glabra and mellina, effrena is a distinctive species in that it displays a remarkable reduction in wing venation and has a distinctive male genital form.

Trichardis glabra sp. n.
Figs 17, 18

  • Etymology: From Latin glabra (hairless, bald, smooth). Refers to the extensively apruinose thoracic pleura.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown, extensively silver pruinose, but weakly on central face and ocellar tubercle, setae black, orange and white. Antennae yellow-brown except distal end of postpedicel and scape which are dark red-brown; scape with two macrosetae ventrally (1 black, 1 orange), fine setulae white and black; pedicel entirely black setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.1:1), with few black setulae dorsally. Mystax entirely white. Ocellar tubercle with 2 black macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, largely apruinose with silver pruinose parts, fine setae whitish, macrosetae brown-yellow. Postpronotum largely apruinose except for narrow medial part, mesonotum largely apruinose except for margins, macrosetae orange, setulae shiny white. Scutellum dark red-brown, entirely apruinose. Anepisternum with slender orange posterior macroseta. Pleura entirely apruinose except for the following small sections— anterior part of proepimeron, dorsal part of anepisternum, ventral part of metepisternum.

  • Legs: Dark red-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur uniformly dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.7:1, ventral tubercles hardly evident, major setae pale yellowish. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.2×1.5 mm. Costal vein extends around most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell largely lacking microtrichiae (a few centrally), cell r5 with microtrichiae limited mainly to distal half.

  • Abdomen: Terga and hypopygium dark red-brown, apruinose, setae transparent whitish. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 17, 18): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view with large broadly-rounded dorsomedial projection equipped with moderately developed setae; mediodistal projection sinuous at base with long slender slightly curved distal end. Gonostylus fairly broad basally with slender downcurved distal end. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight and with small terminal tubules.

  • Holotype: GAMBIA: ♂ ‘Bansang [13°26′N:14°39′W], Gambia / 11.v.77 Malaise in scrub / beside river’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’ (OXUM).

  • Paratypes (all OXUM): GAMBIA: 1♀ same data as holotype; 1♂ ‘Bansang, Gambia / 10.v.77 Malaise in / scrub beside river’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’; 1♂ same labels but ‘9.v.77’; 1♀ ‘Bansang, Gambia / 4.iv.75 Scrub along / river bank’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’.

  • Distribution and biology: Known only from the type locality in Gambia, specimens being collected in April and May (Table 1). All specimens were collected in scrub along a river bank. No other biological information is available.

  • Similar species: T. glabra is most similar to mellina, and they key out together. The male genitalia, especially the form of the gonocoxites are particularly diagnostic in this pair. T. effrena shares some characteristics with these species, but is otherwise distinctive.

Trichardis grisescens Engel, 1924
Figs 19, 20

  • Trichardis grisescens Hermann, 1920: 178. Nomen nudum.

  • Trichardis grisescens: Engel 1924: 108; Hull 1962: 97; Oldroyd 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Orange anteriorly, red-brown posteriorly; entirely silvery pruinose. Antenna brown-orange except for red-brown distal part of postpedicel and style, pale yellow setose; postpedicel clavate (L:D=2.3:1). Mystax uniformly yellow-white. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi red-brown.

  • Thorax: Orange-brown with some darker red-brown parts, extensively silver pruinose, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae shiny pale yellow. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum with red-brown dorsal stripe and lateral broad bands, extensively pruinose except for darker red-brown areas. Scutellum pruinose (except for narrow posterior margin). Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose anteriorly, apruinose posteriorly; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum pruinose posteroventrally, apruinose anterodorsally. Legs: Orange-brown (but femora, tarsomere 5 and hind tibiae darker), pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur red-brown, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur.

  • Wing: 5.3×1.9 mm. Costal vein extends around most of wing margin, weak along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane extensively lacking microtrichiae—discal and r5 cells entirely lacking microtrichiae.

  • Abdomen: Red-brown, apruinose, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae shiny white. T2 redbrown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 19, 20): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium reduced, with somewhat pointed distal end and simple structure. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections and distally with a single short, stout macroseta; mediodistal projection slender with slightly upturned distal end. Gonostylus long, slender with straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs slightly sinuous, with small trifurcate tip.

  • Holotype (examined): GAMBIA: ♂ ‘Essan [?Essau, 13°29′N:16°32′W] / Gambia. / J. J. Simpson. / 25.iv.1910’, ‘Sammlung / F. Hermann’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / grisescens H.i.l. / Engel’ [orange], ‘Ost-Africa / Trichardis / grisescens / Type Hrm’ [pink] (ZSMC). Note: Although Engel (1924) attributed the species to ‘Herm. In litt.’, and the specimen is labelled ‘Type Hrm’, this action has no validity and Engel himself must be credited with authorship.

  • Other material examined: ETHIOPIA: 1♀ Mério Bourié Bord de la Riv Omo [04°31′N:35°59′E], 600 m, ii.1932–33 [?], Arambourg, Chappuis & Jeannel (MNHN). GAMBIA: 1♂ Outside Abuko Nat. Res. at Waterworks [13°24′N:16°39′W], at light 19.00–20.00, Loc. No. 6. UTM28pk214812, 26.ii.1977, Lund Univ. Syst. Dept. Sweden (MZLU); 1♀ [has a holotype label placed by J.E. Chainey 1984, but is not a type], Essan [?Essau], 25.iv.1919, Simpson (BMNH); 2♀ Karantaba Tenda [13°33′N:14°34′W], 23.iii.[19]75, Nth Bank on stony river shore, W.F. Snow (OXUM); 1♀ [has a ‘typus’ label, but is not a type], Jalokunda [Jalo Kunda, 13°47′N:15°00′W], 17.iii.1911, Simpson (BMNH); 1♀ Gambia, 16.iii.1911, Simpson (BMNH). KENYA: 1♀ Archers Post [00°39′N:37°41′E], 15.i.1973, Bampton; 1♀ Nairobi National Park [01°16′S: 36°46′E], 16.xi.1969, Irwin & Ross (CASC); 2♀ Kiboko [02°11′S:37°43′E], 24.ii.1968, Hussey (BMNH); 1♂ Kiboko, 28.ii.1968, Hussey (BMNH). SENEGAL: 1♀ Camon [?Gamon, 13°20′N:12°55′W] Oriental Re[gion]., 14.v.1966, Harvey (NMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: A widespread species having been collected in both West Africa (Senegal, Gambia) and East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya) and both north and south of the equator. Adults fly between November and May (no records for December) (Table 1). Label data do not provide insights into the habitat requirements of the species. Although Engel and Cuthbertson (1939) records the following for grisescens—‘In S. Rhodesia [Zimbabwe] this species is known from the Nyamandhlovu district, Matabeleland, and Urungwe, Lomagundi district. At Kariba Gorge, Zambezi River, it is found on leafstrewn ground in September. The prey consists of leaf-hoppers and small Hymenoptera (teste W.L. Williams). Rhodesian specimens (males) are much larger than the types which came from Gambia.‘—the accepted distribution indicates that these notes must refer to another species.

  • Similar species: T. grisescens has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, ornata, picta, terminalis, testacea, turneri, and zinidi. The species is, however, most similar to terminalis.

Trichardis hesperia sp. n.
Figs 21, 22

  • Etymology: From Latin hesperia (western). Refers to the West African distribution of this species.

  • Description (based primarily on holotype in fair condition—antennae broken off beyond pedicel, postmetacoxal area and most of anterior sterna missing presumably due to damage by dermestids—but supplemented by information from paratypes):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, silver pruinose except for central part of face and frons. Antenna dark red-brown, black setose; postpedicel (♂ paratype) not markedly clavate (L:D=3.6:1). Mystax white with black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, silver pruinose except for bare areas, macrosetae orange, setulae pale yellow. Postpronotum medially pruinose, laterally apruinose; mesonotum apruinose except for narrow lateral and posterior margins. Scutellum entirely pruinose. Anepisternum with orange posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum pruinose anteriorly, apruinose posteriorly. Legs: Dark red-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.0×1.4 mm. Costal vein extends around most of wing margin, weak along anal cell, absent from margin of alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal cell microtrichose, but weakly so anteroproximally, cell r5 entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown proximally rapidly becoming brown-orange more distally, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae pale white. T2 red-brown, apruinose except for narrow posterolateral margins, which have some silver pruinescence.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 21, 22): Epandrium in lateral view as long as basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger long, strongly dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view with projections distally and with a few laterally positioned macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout, fairly straight. Gonostylus slender, slightly sinuous with slightly down turned tip. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight, fairly stout, with small trifurcate tip.

  • Holotype: SENEGAL: ♂ ‘Museum Paris / Sénegal / Kayes [14°25′N:11°30′W] / F. De Zeltner 1905’ (MNHN).

  • Paratypes: GAMBIA: 1♀ ‘Keneba [13°19′44″N:16°00′54″W], Gambia / 14.viii.75 Woodland’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’ (OXUM); 2♀ ‘Keneba, Gambia / 11.viii.74 Tambana / Bare ground’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’ (OXUM); 1♀ ‘Keneba, Gambia / 30.v.74 Tambana / dry stream bed’, ‘W. F. Snow Collection / pres. W. F. Snow, 1996 / OUM 02-1996’ (OXUM). SENEGAL: 1♂ same data as holotype (MNHN).

  • Distribution and biology: This West African species is known from Gambia and Senegal. Adults have been collected in May and August and so the species is probably active during the northern hemisphere summer. Apart from the fact that specimens have been collected on bare ground, dry river beds and in woodland, no biological information exists.

  • Similar species: A member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata, and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be easily separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. hesperia is distinctive.

Trichardis katangaensis Oldroyd, 1970
Figs 23, 24

  • Trichardis katangaensis: Oldroyd 1970: 248–249, fig. 29 (mesopleuron); 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on holotype in good condition, with wings a little crumpled and with damaged hind margins):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, silver pruinose (sparse on lower face), setae longish black, yellow and white. Antenna dark red-brown, black setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.9:1). Mystax shiny yellowish with black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, postpronotal and postalar lobes orange-brown, goldsilver and silver pruinose, generally appearing more setose than many other species. Postpronotum medially narrowly pruinose, laterally extensively apruinose; mesonotum apruinose with narrow silver pruinose lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae black, setulae mixed long black and short yellow. Scutellum apruinose. Anepisternum with black posterior macroseta, pruinose except for large anteroventral area. Proepimeron entirely pruinose, katepisternum pruinose except for small central area, anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown except for orange-brown coxae, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.1:1 (i.e. moderately inflated), ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia with well-developed ventrodistal spur. Wing: 6.1×2.2 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from margin of alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose— discal cell microtrichose but weakly so anteroproximally, cell r5 entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae longish white. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for posterolateral margins.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 23, 24): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger short, only moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with about four medially-directed macrosetae at about mid-length; mediodistal projection stout, with upturned forked distal end. Gonostyli stout with converging, pointed distal ends. Aedeagal prongs small, more or less straight and with small trifurcate tip.

  • Holotype: DR CONGO: ♂ ‘Holotypus’ [orange], ‘Musée Du Congo / Lulua [05°56′S:25°47′E]: Kapanga / x-1932 / G. F. Overlaet’, ‘Trichardis / katangaensis Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd, 1965 / Paratype’ [white] (MRAC).

  • Paratypes (all MRAC): DR CONGO: 1♀ ‘Paratypus’ [orange], ‘Musée Du Congo / Elisabethville [11°40′S:27°28′E] / xi-1911 / Miss. Agric.’, ‘Trichardis / katangaensis Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd, 1965 / Holotype’ [white]. TANZANIA: 1♀ ‘Coll. Mus Congo / Tang.: Sunkutu [?], 1140 m. / Km. 95, Rte Pepa-Moliro / H. Bomans xii-1953’, ‘Trichardis / katangaensis Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd, 1965 / Paratype’ [white].

  • Note: The two DR Congo types above were incorrectly labelled when received from MRAC. The male from Lulua, clearly designated as holotype, carried the paratype label while the female from Elizabethville was labelled as holotype. These labels have been switched.

  • Distribution and biology: The species is found in Central and East Africa. Adults fly between October and December (Table 1) during the southern hemisphere summer. No biological information is available.

  • Similar species: Oldroyd (1970) compared the species to cribrata and illustrated the mesopleura of both species. Why he did this is not understood as these species do not have a great deal in common. T. katangaensis can be linked with lavignei in that both species possess hind-tibial spurs. However, both are otherwise distinctive species.

Trichardis lavignei sp. n.
Figs 25, 26

  • Etymology: Named for Dr Robert Lavigne whose collecting activities in Somalia have added significantly to our understanding of Asilidae from this part of Africa.

  • Description (based on holotype in good condition; the genitalia, macerated and stored in a capsule some years before this study, are intact, but somewhat squashed and inflexible, making it difficult to illustrate the structures in the standard manner used in this paper):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, gold-silver pruinose except for area around antennal bases and ocellar tubercle, setae black, yellow and white. Antenna dark red-brown, mainly yellow setose (a few black); postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=4.2:1). Mystax black, confined to lower half of face (which in profile has a slightly concave area centrally). Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, postpronotal and postalar lobes and anterior part of scutellum orange-brown, silver pruinose except for bare areas, setae yellowish. Postpronotum apruinose except for a tiny area medially, mesonotum extensively apruinose except for narrow lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae yellow, setulae yellow and white. Scutellum entirely pruinose. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum extensively apruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown, femora and tibiae paler proximally, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown with paler proximal end, length:height ratio 3.2:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia with ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.0×1.6 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal cell microtrichose but weakly so at proximal end, cell r5 entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown proximally becoming orange-brown distally, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae white. T2 dark red-brown, entirely apruinose, tufts of white setulae posterolaterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 25, 26): Epandrium significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view with slender projections distally and without distally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection unusually slender and not medially situated as in most other species. Gonostylus slender, fairly straight, with slightly hooked tip. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight, with small sinuous terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Holotype: SOMALIA: ♂ ‘Somalia / Mogadishu [02°02′N:45°21′E], / v-10-86 / R. Lavigne’ (NMSA). Paratype: 1♀ ‘Somalia / Mogadishu / vi-7-86 / R. Lavigne’ (NMSA).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is recorded only from the type locality. Adults have been recorded in May and June (Table 1). No biological information exists.

  • Similar species: T. lavignei can be linked with katangaensis in that both species possess hind tibial spurs. However, both are otherwise distinctive species.

Trichardis leucocoma (Wulp, 1899)
Figs 27, 28

  • Hoplistomera leucocoma: Wulp 1899: 90–91.

  • Trichardis leucocoma: Engel 1924: 107; Efflatoun 1937: 208–212, figs 150, 151 (head), 152 (wing), 153 (hind leg), 154, 155 (♂ gen.), 156 (♀ gen.), pl. IV, fig. 34 (whole fly); Theodor 1980: 256–258, figs 433 (head), 433a (antennal postpedicel), 434 (aedeagus), 435 (epandrium and proctiger), 436 (hypandrium), 437 (gonocoxite and dististylus), 438 (spermatheca); Oldroyd 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Strobilothrix albipila Becker, 1907: 43–44.

  • Trichardis leucocomus: Hull 1962: 97; Lehr 1988: 212 (incorrect subsequent spelling).

  • Triclis rufescens Austen, 1914: 267. Syn. n.

  • Redescription (based on lectotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Probably orange but colour masked by strong silver pruinescence, setae white. Antenna orange except for dark red-brown style, white setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.6:1). Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis orange with orange-brown distal half, palpi orange.

  • Thorax: Probably orange and red-brown but colour largely masked by strong silver pruinescence, setae white. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum dark red-brown centrally, orange laterally, entirely silver pruinose, setae white. Scutellum pruinose except for hind margin. Anepisternum lacking posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose (weakish anteroventrally). Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepimeron pruinose. Legs: Yellowish with hind tibiae and dorsal parts of all femora red-brown, pulvilli clearly much shorter than empodium. Hind femur orange-brown with ventral parts yellow, length:height ratio 4.0:1 (i.e. slender), ventral tubercles not evident. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.6×2.0 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane entirely without microtrichiae.

  • Abdomen: Brown-orange proximally becoming red-brown, hypopygium orange, silver pruinose except for small areas anterolaterally, white setose (setulae longish). T2 orange, pruinose, pruinose except for small anterolateral areas.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 27, 28): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections and with about 6 well-developed medially directed macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout with slightly upturned distal end. Gonostylus stout with upturned straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs short, fairly stout, more or less straight, with moderately well-developed tips.

  • Lectotype designation: Wulp (1899: 90–91) based his description on ‘Five specimens (2♂ 3♀ ) from Shaik Othman.’ A holotype was not designated and so all the specimens are syntypes. While the ZSMC female is labelled ‘Type’, I here designate one of the OXUM males as lectotype, all the other specimens are paralectotypes.

  • Lectotype: YEMEN: 1♂ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden [12°50′N:45°00′E], / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Mar. 4. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7716’, ‘Type Dip: 2143/4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM).

  • Paralectotypes: YEMEN: 1♀ ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Apr. 1. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J. W. Yerbury.’, ‘Sammlung / F. Hermann’, ‘Type. / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc., / 1899, page 90– 1.’ [white with pink edge], ‘[red square]’, ‘Trichardis / leucocoma / ♀ v. d. W.’, ‘Arabia / Hoplistomera / leucocoma. / Type. V. d. W.’ (ZSMC); 1♀ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Feb. 24. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’ ‘Hoplistomera sp nov? / nearest cribrata Loew / Dipt sud afr p 121 but / distinct’ [faint pencil handwriting] ‘1899 / 7717’, ‘Hoplistomera / leucocoma n.s.’, ‘Type Dip: 214½ / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM); 1♂ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Feb. 17.95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7715’, ‘Type Dip: 2142/4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM); 1♀ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Apr. 1. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7714’, ‘Type Dip: 2144/4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM).

  • Other material examined:

  • Afrotropical: NIGER: 1♂ Aïr [18°30′N:08°00′E], Tafidet Valley, North East of Agadez, viii.2004, Mamadou (OXUM). YEMEN: 2♂ 1♀ 1? Huswah, nr Aden [12°50′N:45°00′E], 14.iv.1895, Nurse (BMNH); 1♂ 2♀ Lodar [13°56′N:45°56′E], 16.v.1967, 800 m, Guichard (BMNH).

  • Palaearctic: ALGERIA: ♂ (T. rufescens holotype) ‘Triclis / Type / rufescens / Austen’, ‘Algeria: / Biskra [?] / 5.vi.1897. / Rev. A.E. Eaton . 97.268.’, ‘Biskra / 5.vi.97 / ♂’, ‘Holotype / Triclis / rufescens Austen / det. J.E. Chainey, 1984’ (BMNH). EGYPT: 1♀ Wadi Husein [26°48′N:33°27′E], 1.v.1919, Adair (ZSMC); 1♀ Wadi Hof [29°52′N:31°19′E], 8.v.1924, H.C.E. (ZSMC); 1♂ Wadi Hof, 9.vi.[19]22, Efflatoun (MCMI); 1♂ Um Elek [?], 14.v.[19]26 (BMNH); 1♂ W. Kakhla [?], 7.vi.[19]26, Efflatoun (BMNH). LIBYA: 5♂ 1♀ Leptis Magna [32°59′N:14°15′E], 9.vii.1957, Guichard (BMNH). PAKISTAN: Baluchistan: 2♂ 3♀ Turbat [26°00′N:63°06′E], 12.v.1963, Popov (BMNH); 1? Patkin [Patkin Chauki, 29°05′N:65°48′E], 2.vi.1963, Popov (BMNH); 1♂ 1? Mastung [29°44′N:66°56′E], 13.vi.1963, Popov (BMNH); 1♂ 1? Khuzelar [?], 17.vi.1963, Popov (BMNH); 1♂ 1? Guelta [?], 4.vi.1963, Popov (BMNH). MONGOLIA: 1 ♀ S.W. Mongolia, 24.vii, Söderbom, Sven Hedins Exp. Str. Asien (NHRS). PALESTINE: 1♂ Rubin [31°56′N:34°42′E], 28.v.1921, Aharoni (BMNH). SAUDI ARABIA: 1♂ 1♀ Wadi Qanuna [?Wadi Qanahu, 13°12′N:43°46′E], 30.iii.1948, Uvarov (BMNH); 1♂ 1? nr Hais [13°56′N:43°29′E], 7.x.1962 (BMNH); 1♂ 1♀ Zeidiya [15°20′N:43°01′E], 28.ix.1962 (BMNH); 1? Mahfad [?Mahfa, 15°53′N:43°15′E], 20.x.1962 (BMNH); 2♂ nr Bisha [?Bitah, 16°02′N:42°59′E], 25.vi.1962 (BMNH); 1♀ Nejran [?], 17.vii.1962 (BMNH); 1♂ [locality illegible], 20.ix.1963 (BMNH). UNKNOWN: 1♀ Darré Zohrab [?], Aulimesk [?], 29.v.1962 (BMNH); 1♂ Lehaj [?Lahaj - may be from Yemen], 11.v.1895, Nurse (BMNH).

  • New synonymy: I have studied the unique holotype of T. rufescens Austen, 1914 and believe it to be entirely conspecific with T. leucocoma. The species name is therefore a synonym of T. leucocoma. The genus Triclis Loew, 1851 (type species Triclis olivaceus Loew, 1851) is Palaearctic with three catalogued species (Lehr 1988) including rufescens. Although I do not claim to be familiar with the species of Triclis, in attempting to check the classification of rufescens it became clear that it is somewhat unlike other species included in Triclis. Hull (1962) uses the extent of abdominal setation to effectively isolate Triclis from Trichardis in his key. In keying rufescens the species does not agree with the condition described for Triclis. Theodor (1980) draws attention to the condition of the antennal style in keying Triclis, and rufescens does not possess a Triclis-like style. Indeed when comparing the types of rufescens and leucocoma directly, there is little doubt that these are conspecific taxa.

  • Distribution and biology: This is primarily a Palaearctic species. Lehr (1988) summarised the distribution of the species thus—‘USSR: KZ [Kazakhstan]; Asia: Arabic States, Israel, Iran, ?Mongolia; North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Egypt; Afrotropical Region.’ Previously recorded only from one Afrotropical location (Yemen), the new record from Niger suggests that the species may be far more widely distributed within the Afrotropics. My records show that adults have been collected between February and May as well as August and so the species probably flies during the northern hemisphere summer. Little biological information is available. However, Efflatoun (1937: 212), in his report on Egyptian asilids records: ‘T. leucocoma is very common … My records extend from end of March to end of September. The favourite hunting grounds for this Asilid … are the dried stony and sandy beds of Wadies where it sits on sand or on stones. I have never seen it sitting or settling on plants or grasses and I have caught it feeding on Musca lucidula and on two or three species of Tachinids, among which Wolfartia trina Wied.‘

  • Similar species: T. leucocoma is very similar to rueppelii and may be a synonym of that older-named species (see discussion under rueppelii) from Algeria. Together these make a distinctive pair not to be confused with any other Afrotropical species. The absence of anepisternal macrosetae sets them apart from all others studied by me. The fact that the species occurs in both the Afrotropical and Palaearctic regions suggests that there may be other similar species in the Palaearctic Region.

Trichardis malawi sp. n.
Figs 29, 30

  • Etymology: Named after Malawi, where the holotype and a number of paratypes were collected.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose except for shiny apruinose strip centrally from ocellar tubercle to epistomal margin, setae black and white. Antenna orange-brown, distal part of postpedicel and style dark red-brown, black and white setose; postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=4.2:1). Mystax sparse white with black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black with a few small orange-brown areas (postalar lobes, anepisternum and coxae), fairly extensively silver pruinose, pale yellow-white setose. Postpronotum strongly silver pruinose medially, apruinose laterally; mesonotum apruinose except for margins, macrosetae pale yellowish, setulae pale white. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellowish posterior macroseta, silver pruinose except for large apruinose anteroventral area. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Orange-brown with femora slightly darker, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange-brown, length:height ratio 3.5:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.7×1.9 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose, small areas of some proximally situated cells without microtrichiae; discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown anteriorly becoming brown-orange posteriorly, apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose posterolateral tergal margins, macrosetae pale yellowish, setulae whitish. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for hind margins laterally.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 29, 30): Epandrium in lateral view significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple in structure. Gonocoxite in ventral view with weakly defined projections distally and lacking macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout with upturned darkly sclerotised distal end. Gonostylus fairly stout with slightly upturned tip. Aedeagal base well-developed, upturned mediodistally; prongs large, upwardly directed and with expanded trumpet-like openings.

  • Holotype: MALAWI: ♂ ‘Malawi 35 km SE of / Monkey Bay on road / to Mangochi 1434Aa / 12.xii.1980 500m / Londt & Stuckenberg / mixed woodland’ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes: MALAWI: 1♂ 6♀ same data as holotype. TANZANIA: 2♀ ‘Tanzania: Serengeti / Nat. Park. Seronera [02°16′S:34°47′E] / 23-xi-1069 / M.E. Irwin & / E.S. Ross’ (CASC). ZIMBABWE: 1♂ ‘Country Rhodesia / Loc. Lusulu [18°04′S:27°50′E] / Date 22/xi/63 / Coll. G. Davison’ (NMSA); 1♀ ‘Country Rhodesia / Loc. 22/xi/63 / Date Lusulu / Coll. R. J. Phelps’ (NMSA).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is recorded from Southern and Eastern Africa. Adults have been collected during the summer months of November and December (Table 1). I collected the Malawian specimens resting on the ground in mixed woodland.

  • Similar species: A member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be easily separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. malawi has distinctive male genitalia.

Trichardis mellina sp. n.
Figs 31, 32

  • Etymology: From Latin mellina (honey coloured). Refers to the orange-brown colour of this species.

  • Description (based on holotype in good condition, with left antenna broken off beyond pedicel and mid leg broken off beyond femur):

  • Head: Brown-orange with dark red-brown occipital area, entirely silver pruinose, white setose. Antenna brown-orange, white setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D= 3.8:1). Mystax shiny white. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis brown-orange proximally, red-brown distally; palpi brown-orange.

  • Thorax: Brown-orange, gold-silver pruinose except for apruinose areas, pale whitish yellow setose. Postpronotum extensively pruinose except for narrow lateral strip, mesonotum orange-brown, extensively silver-gold pruinose (weak mediolaterally), pale yellowish setose. Scutellum gold-silver pruinose except for narrow hind margin and central part of disc. Anepisternum with pale yellowish posterior macroseta, pruinose dorsally, apruinose ventrally. Proepimeron pruinose anteriorly, apruinose posteriorly; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly. Legs: Brown-orange, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur brown-orange, length:height ratio 4.2:1 (slender), ventral tubercles absent. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.2×1.6 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal and r5 cells almost entirely microtrichose (weakly proximally and adjacent to veins).

  • Abdomen: Brown-orange, hind margins of terga yellow, entirely apruinose, pale yellowish setose. T2 brown-orange, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 31, 32): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger fairly long, strongly dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with about 4 distally arranged weak macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout at base becoming slender towards sclerotised distal end. Gonostyli short, stout, with broadly-rounded converging distal ends. Aedeagal prongs slender, slightly curved, ending as small terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Holotype: ERITREA: ♂ ‘Ghinda [15°26′N:39°07′E] / Mochi / vi-16 [1916]’ (MCMI).

  • Paratypes: ERITREA: 3♂ 3♀ same data as holotype; 1♂ ‘Trichardis / erythrogaster. Herm / Typus’, ‘Pres by / Imp. Bur. Ent. / Brit Mus. / 1923–58.’, ‘Abyssinia / Nov. 1911 / R. J. Stordy’ (BMNH). Note: The specimens have poorly hand-written labels difficult to decipher.

  • Distribution and biology: The species is known with certainty only from Ghinda in Eritrea. Apart from the fact that adults fly during June, midsummer in the northern hemisphere (Table 1), nothing is known of its biology.

  • Similar species: T. mellina is most similar to glabra and these species key out together. The male genitalia, especially the form of the gonocoxites are particularly diagnostic in this pair. T. effrena shares some characteristics with these species, but is otherwise distinctive.

Trichardis nigrescens (Ricardo, 1903)
Figs 33, 34

  • Hoplistomera nigrescens: Ricardo 1903: 362.

  • Trichardis nigrescens: Hull 1962: 97; Oldroyd 1980: 356 (catalogue); Geller-Grimm 2002: 470, pls 3, 17 (entire ♂).

  • Redescription (based on holotype ♀ in good condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown, extensively silver pruinose except for lower face and frons (including ocellar tubercle), black and white setose. Antenna red-brown, black and pale yellow setose; postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=5.3:1). Mystax mainly white with a few black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 4 yellowish macrosetae. Some black occipital macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, silver pruinose when present, pale whitish setose. Postpronotum dark red-brown with small orange part posteriorly, largely apruinose except for medial part, mesonotum largely apruinose except for lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae black (notopleurals) and whitish, setulae shiny white. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with slender, weakly developed posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except for small area anteroventrally. Proepimeron anteriorly pruinose, posteriorly apruinose; katepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose. Legs: Femora dark red-brown, other segments orange-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, moderately slender (length to height ratio not measured), ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.5×2.1 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell largely lacking microtrichiae (a few present), cell r5 with microtrichiae in distal half only.

  • Abdomen: Anterior five terga dark red-brown with orange-brown hind margins, posterior terga and hypopygium mustard colour, apruinose except for silver pruinose posterolateral corners, setae whitish. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for silver pruinose posterolateral corner.

    ♂ genitalia: Geller-Grimm (2002: figs 2–4) illustrated a male from Socotra. I here illustrate the genitalia of an already macerated ♂ from Homhil (Figs 33, 34). While this is probably the specimen illustrated by Geller-Grimm, I believe that my drawings more accurately depict the genital structures and the subtle differences between nigrescens and abdelkuri, the closely similar species from the nearby island of Abd el Kuri. The following is a description of the Homhil ♂ genitalia based on my illustrations. Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with mediodistally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection fairly slender with slightly upturned distal end. Gonostylus slender with straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight and with small terminal tubules.

  • Note: Although this description is similar to that of the genitalia of abdelkuri, the genital differences in these species can easily be detected by comparing the relevant illustrations. The shape of the gonocoxite in ventral view is particularly diagnostic.

  • Holotype (examined): YEMEN: Socotra I.: ♀ ‘Type’ [circular, red edged], ‘Hoplistomera / nigrescens Ric. / 2♀ ’, ‘Sokotra / Hadibu [12°40′N:53°59′E] Plains. / 11.xii.1898 / W. R. O. Grant. / 1916–75.’ ‘Holotype / Hoplistomera / nigrescens Ricardo / det. J. E. Chainey, 1984’ [has circular, red edged label stuck to top right corner of holotype label] (BMNH).

  • Other material examined: YEMEN: Socotra I.: 1♂ Homhil, 12°34′13″N:54°18′32″E, 29–30.x.2000, Pohl (HLMD); 1♂ 1♀ Goeeh, 12°32′25″N:54°10′22″E, 240 m, 23.x.2000, Pohl (HLMD).

  • Recorded specimens not studied (cited from Geller-Grimm (2002)): YEMEN: Socotra I.: 2♀ Goeeh, 12°32′25″N:54°10′22″E, 240 m, 23.x.2000, Pohl (NHCY 1♀ COGG 1♀ ); 1♀ Firmihin, 12°24′41″N: 54°13′35″E, 34–25.x.2000, Pohl (HLMD); 1♀ Deksam, 12°32.298′N:53°56.102′E, ca 300 m, 26.x.2000, Pohl (HLMD); 2♂ 1♀ Homhil, 12°32′N:53°56′E, 9.i.1998, Wranik (CWWR, COGG 1♂).

  • Distribution and biology: The species has been recorded only from four localities on the island of Socotra. Collections have been made in October, December and January (Table 1). No biological data have been recorded on specimen labels.

  • Similar species: T. nigrescens is superficially very similar to abdelkuri, but the species can be reliably separated on male genital features. Although I have seen relatively few specimens of both species, all specimens of abdelkuri have mesonotal, anepisternal and ocellar setae yellowish while these setae are mostly but not always black in nigrescens. These two species are somewhat similar to pohli, but easily separated on size and male genital form.

Trichardis ornata sp. n.
Figs 35, 36

  • Etymology: From Latin ornata (handsome, splendid). Refers to the attractiveness of this species.

  • Description (based on unique holotype in good condition, right antenna broken off beyond pedicel, genitalia slightly damaged):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, entirely silver pruinose, white setose. Antennal scape and pedicel orange, postpedicel dark red-brown, setae white; postpedicel somewhat clavate (L:D=2.9:1). Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, extensively silver pruinose, pale yellow and white setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum apruinose except for fairly broad silver pruinose margins, macrosetae pale yellowish, setulae white. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose, but weakly so anteroventrally. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Femora orange with dark red-brown band subapically (broad on hind legs), tibiae orange proximally red-brown distally, tarsi dark red-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown distally orange proximally, length:height ratio 4.3:1 (slender), ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.3×2.0 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell lacking microtrichiae, cell r5 only with weakly developed microtrichiae in distal half.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, extensively apruinose but hind margins of terga broadly pruinose and lateral parts weakly pruinose anteriorly, white setose. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for broad posterior bands laterally and weaker areas anterolaterally. ♂ genitalia (Figs 35, 36; note slight damage to tips of proctiger, aedeagal prongs, tip of mediodistal process of left gonocoxite, and tip of left gonostylus): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed (tip broken off). Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without projections and lacking distally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection fairly slender with straight distal end. Gonostylus moderately slender, gently curved with broadly rounded apex. Aedeagus with fairly elongate lateral projections basally; prongs more or less straight, tip damaged.

  • Holotype: CHAD: ♂ ‘Tchad, N'Djaména [12°04′N:15°08′E] / Chari — Baguirmi / 2.viii.1992 / Leg. H.R. Feijen’ (NMSA).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is known only from the type locality. The holotype was collected in August (Table 1). No biological information exists.

  • Similar species: T. ornata has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, picta, terminalis, testacea, turneri and zinidi.

    The species is, however, most similar to testacea.

Trichardis picta Hermann, 1906
Figs 37–40, 59

  • Trichardis picta: Hermann 1906: 139–141; Kertész 1909: 159; Engel 1924: 107; Hull 1962: 97; Oldroyd 1974: 119; 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Trichardis Lucifer: Oldroyd 1974: 120. Syn. n.

  • Trichardis lucifera: Oldroyd 1980: 356 (catalogue), unjustified emendation.

  • Redescription (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown except for brown-orange face, colours masked by strong silver pruinescence, setae white. Antenna brown-yellow except for brown distal part of postpedicel and style, setae white; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.2:1). Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 6 macrosetae. Proboscis red-brown, palpi brown-orange.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, colour masked by strong silver pruinescence, pale yellow-white setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum entirely pruinose, but more weakly posteriorly. Scutellum pruinose except for hind margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown, narrowly brown-orange proximally, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown with brown-orange proximal parts, length:height ratio 3.9:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.8×2.2 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane devoid of microtrichiae, including discal and r5 cells.

  • Abdomen: Red-brown, extensively silver pruinose except for hind margins of terga and transverse bands across each tergite at about mid-length, setae white. T2 red-brown, strongly pruinose except for apruinose hind margin and weakly pruinose central area.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 37, 38): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger hardly dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without projections and with about 7 small, distally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection fairly stout with upturned sclerotised distal end. Gonostylus stout, laterally flanged, with broad laterally compressed tip. Aedeagal prongs small, straight.

  • Notes on type material: Hermann (1906) based his description on ‘♂’ (number of specimens not stated) from ‘Capland, Willowmore (Dr. Brauns)’. While Engel (1924: 107) records the following material ‘♀ Lichtenburg, Transvaal. — 1♂♀ Willowmore, Kapland, Dr. Brauns leg.’, and these ZSMC specimens (listed below) carry type labels, as do a pair of ‘cotype’ specimens in the AMGS (also listed below), only one specimen was collected before the published description. The single 1905 specimen must be considered the holotype, others were presurably mislabelled as types by Engel and possibly other workers.

    The two BMNH specimens of lucifer (holotype and paratype) when received, were incorrectly labelled—the female from Kahn River being labelled as the holotype. As Oldroyd (1974) clearly indicated that the male from Satansplatz was the holotype, these labels have been switched. While Oldroyd (1974) called the species lucifer, presumably because the type locality was Satansplatz (i.e. Satan's Place, referring to Lucifer), the spelling was amended to read lucifera in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue (1980) by the Editor R.W. Crosskey, a change I consider both unnecessary and inappropriate as the name lucifera has a totally different derivation (from Latin lux).

    I consider the synonymy of lucifer with picta to be entirely justified. T. picta is a widely distributed species displaying variation over its range. The paler colour of the lucifer types represents variation, and while the male genitalia do show slight differences (Figs 39, 40), these too are considered to be within acceptable limits of variation.

  • Type specimens studied: SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ (holotype picta) ‘Capland / Willowmor [Willowmore: 33°17′S:23°29′E] / 20 1 1905 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Sammlung / F. Hermann’, ‘Type von / ♂ Trichardis / picta Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); NAMIBIA: ♂ (holotype lucifer) ‘Holo- / type’ [circular with red border], ‘S. W. Africa: Satansplatz. [24°51′S:17°31′E] / 1300m. / 17–19.xii.1933. / K. Jordan’, ‘Brit. Mus. / 1934–288’, ‘Trichardis / lucifer Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd 1972 / Paratype’ [white] (BMNH); 1♀ (paratype lucifer) ‘Para/ type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘Southern / African Exp. / B.M. 1972–1’, ‘S.W. Africa (29) / Kahn River, 5 mls. / N. Usakos [22°00′S:15°34′E] / 30–31.i.1972’, ‘Trichardis / lucifer Old. / det. H. Oldroyd 1972 / Holotype’ [white] (BMNH).

  • Other material examined: NAMIBIA: 1♀ Otjitundua [18°39′S:14°14′E], iii.1926, Mus. Exped. (SAMC); 1♀ 60 km E Otjiwarongo, 20°39′S:17°05′E, 20.iii.1984, Londt & Stuckenberg, Acacia thornveld and dry river course; 2♂ 1♀ 26 km N Windhoek, 22°20′S:17°04′E, 29.iii.1984, Londt & Stuckenberg, dry river bed Acacia riparian woodland; 2♂ 1♀ 191 km E Walvis Bay [22°57′S:14°30′E], 12.xi.1963, Moore (NMNH); 1♂ 3♀ 1? Hakas Mts [Hakos Mts, 23°10′S:16°20′E], 12.xi.1963 (1♀ ), 13.xi.1963 (1♂ 2♀ 1?), Moore (NMNH); 4♂ 3♀ Gobabeb [23°33′S:15°02′E], 17.xi.1963, Moore (NMNH); 3♂ 1♀ Namib Desert Park, Kuiseb R. at Gobabeb, 2315Ca, 12.ii.1974, Irwin, riverine forest and sand; 1♂ Kuiseb R., 9.xii.1976, Cunningham; 2♀ Keetmanshoop Dist., 17.5 km N Grünau, 2718Bc, 1350 m, 30.i.1974, Irwin, dry river bed; 2♂ Fish River Canyon Park, Ai-Ais [27°55′S:17°29′E], 19–21.xi.1993, Koch (ZMHB). SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ Baberspan, 25°07′S:26°05′E, 14–21.xii.1993, Joffe; 1♀ Lichtenburg [26°09′S:26°10′E], Brauns (ZSMC); 1♂ 2♀ 10 km W Bloubos Farm, 28°07′S:20°45′E, 900 m, 17.iii.1991, Londt & Whittington, red dunes [habitat] N Upington; 1♂ Bloemfontein [29°10′S:26°00′E], 13.ii.1918 (SANC); 1♀ 5 km S Laingsburg, 33°14′S:20°52′E, 700 m, 25.xi.1990, Londt & Whittington, Banks Buffels River; 1♂ Gamka R. 40 km N Prince Albert, 3321BB, 500 m, 11.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, sandy area/Acacias; 1♂ Meiringspoort, 3322BC, 11–12.xii.1979, Londt & Stuckenberg, rocky hillside & stream edge; 8♂ 2♀ Diepkloof ca 20 km E De Rust, 3322BD, 12.xii.1979, Londt & Stuckenberg, dry rocky hillside & stream; 1♀ Graaff-Reinet Urquhart Park Caravan Park, 32°15′S:24°33′E, 4–6.xii.1988, Londt, riverine vegetation, sandy ground; 1♂ Middelburg [31°29′S:25°01′E], 13.ii.1925, Munro; 3♂ 2♀ Rietvlei Nieuveld Escarpment [32°20′S:21°30′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♀ Tankwa Karoo [32°30′E 19°45′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♂ Letjiesbosch Koup [32°34′S:22°16′E], iii.1937, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 2♂ 7♀ Merweville [32°40′S:21°31′E], i–ii.1947, Zinn (SAMC); 1♂ 1♀ Merweville Lainsburg Dist., i.1959, Zinn (SAMC); 1♂ Dikbome Merweville Koup, i.1953, Zinn (SAMC); 1♂ Oukloof Beaufort West [33°15′S:22°06′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♀ Willowmore [33°17′S:23°29′E], 25.ii.1907, Brauns (ZSMC); 1♂ 1♀ Willowmore, 5.ii.1907 (1♀ ), 1.iii.1907 (1♂), Brauns (AMGS); 2♂ 3♀ Willowmore, 25.ii.1907 (1♀), 1.xii.1909 (1♂), xii.1912 (1♀), 25.xii.1916 (1♂), 10.xii.1920 (1♀ ), Brauns; 2♂ 1♀ Willowmore, 5.ii.1907 (1♂), 1.xii.1920 (1♀ ), no date (1♂), Brauns (NMNH); 1♂ 1♀ Willowmore, 20.i.1908, Brauns (BMNH); 1♀ Willowmore, 25.xii.1915, Brauns (MRAC); 1♂ Willowmore, 15.xii.1917, Brauns (SAMC); 6♂ 3♀ Rooinek Lainsburg Dist. [33°20′S:20°55′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♀ Rooinek Pass, x.1952, Mus. Expd. (SAMC); 4♂ 1♀ Tierberg Res. Stat. Prince Albert Dist., 33°07′42″S:22°16′24″E, 26.xi–5.xii.1987, Gess (AMGS); 1♂ 1♀ De Hoek Uitenhage [33°45′S:25°24′E], 11.iii.1919, Munro (NMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is a southern African endemic being found in the western parts of the region. It ranges from northern Namibia southwards to the Western and Eastern Cape provinces (Fig. 59). Adults fly between October and March (Table 1). Personal experience and label data indicate that the species frequents Acacia woodland and is associated with sandy stream banks or dry river courses where individuals rest on the ground. Two prey records are known to me, both in AMGS: 1♂ (Tierberg, Prince Albert Dist.) pinned with a pollen wasp (Hymenoptera: Masaridae), and 1♀ (same locality) pinned with a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae).

  • Similar species: T. picta has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, ornata, terminalis, testacea, turneri and zinidi. The species is, however, distinctive and difficult to confuse with others in this group.

Trichardis pohli Geller-Grimm, 2002
Figs 41, 42

  • Trichardis pohli: Geller-Grimm 2002: 472–474, pls 4, 18 (entire ♂), figs 5–7 (♂ terminalia).

  • Redescription (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black, extensively silver pruinose, but weakly so on frons and apex of ocellar tubercle, setae black and white. Antennal scape yellow-brown, pedicel, postpedicel and style dark red-brown, setae black and white (black setae being better developed than white); postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=4.5:1), with few black setulae dorsally. Mystax black and white (black setae better developed). Ocellar tubercle with 4 black macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black with orange parts, silver pruinose except for some apruinose parts, fine setae whitish, macrosetae either black (mesonotum) or white (pleura). Postpronotum largely apruinose except for narrow medial part, mesonotum dark red-brown to blackish except for orange postpronotal and postalar lobes, largely apruinose except for margins, macrosetae black, setulae shiny yellowish. Scutellum dark red-brown with orange posterior margin, anterior half silver pruinose. Anepisternum with slender black posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except for small area antero ventrally. Katatergite with white macrosetae. Proepimeron anteriorly pruinose, posteriorly apruinose; katepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose; anepisternum pruinose except for anterodorsal part. Legs: Generally dark red-brown to black anteriorly, yellowish posteriorly, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown anterodorsally, yellowish posteroventrally; length:height ratio 4.2:1; ventral tubercles hardly evident, major setae pale yellowish. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.0×1.6 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane not extensively microtrichose—discal cell largely lacking microtrichiae (a few present centrally), cell r5 with microtrichiae limited mainly to distal half.

  • Abdomen: Terga and hypopygium dark red-brown, but with orange parts laterally, apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose distolateral margins, setae transparent whitish. T2 dark red-brown with orange parts laterally (anterior and posterior parts), apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose posterior margins laterally.

    ♂ genitalia: Holotype well illustrated by Geller-Grimm (2002: figs 5–7). Another male from Socotra (NHMW) is here illustrated (Figs 41, 42) and described: Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections distally and with mediodistally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection slender with slightly upturned tip. Gonostylus long, laterally compressed, with slender slightly down turned apex. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight and with small terminal tubules.

  • Holotype (examined): YEMEN: Socotra I.: ♂ ‘Soqotra · Archipel: Soqotra, / Route von Hadibo zum Deksam· Plateau, 800 m / 12°32′N:53°56′E, 22.2.1999 / leg.: H. Pohl, SOQ35’ (HLMD).

  • Other material examined: YEMEN: Socotra I.: 1♀ 1? Hamadara [?], 400 m, 4.iv.1967, Guichard (BMNH); 1♂ 1♀ Socótra I., 1899, Simony (NHMW).

  • Distribution and biology: A species apparently confined to Socotra I. and known with certainty from two localities. Collected in February and April (Table 1). No biological data have been recorded on labels.

  • Similar species: A fairly distinctive species with some similarities to both abdelkuri and nigrescens.

Trichardis rueppelii (Wiedemann, 1828)

  • Dasypogon Rüppelii: Wiedemann 1828: 569–570.

  • Laphria rueppelii: Oldroyd 1980: 352.

  • Trichardis rueppellii: Geller-Grimm 1999: 214.

  • Redescription (based on holotype in fair condition: both antennae broken off beyond pedicels, hind margins of wings damaged and not showing extent of costal vein, terminal tarsomeres mostly missing, damaged or dirty):

  • Head: Pale orange, silver pruinescence, setae white. Antennae orange, both broken off beyond pedicel, white setose. Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae and a few fairly big setae. Proboscis orange with orange-brown distal half, palpi orange.

  • Thorax: Brown-orange, dorsal parts red-brown, setae white. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum dark red-brown centrally, orange laterally, extensively silver pruinose except for central parts [may be worn smooth through handing?], setae white. Scutellum pruinose except for hind margin. Anepisternum lacking posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose (somewhat apruinose anteroventrally [may be worn]). Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepimeron pruinose. Legs: Uniformly orange, lengths of pulvilli and empodia difficult to study as terminal tarsomeres dirty, damaged or missing. Hind femur orange, length:height ratio 4.1:1 (i.e. slender), ventral tubercles not evident. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 6.3×2.4 mm. Costal veins broken and missing beyond wing tips [due to damaged hind margins]. Membrane entirely without microtrichiae.

  • Abdomen: Uniformly brown-orange, terga silver pruinose except for small areas anterolaterally and centrally [may be worn], white setose (setulae longish). T2 orange, pruinose except for small anterolateral and central [may be worn] areas.

  • Holotype (examined): ERITREA: ♀ ‘Abyssinia [no locality given] / Dr Rüppell.’, ‘136’ [blue with black frame], ‘Typus’ [red with black frame], ∼ ‘Dipt. / 105’ [white], ‘Trichardis / Ruppelii Wd. / det. / Dr. F. Herman’ (SMFD). Note: Wiedemann (1928) gives the provenance as ‘Aus Nubien’. This suggests the Nubian Desert which is in Eritrea and not Sudan, as listed by Oldroyd (1980). For the present it is not possible to provide a type-locality.

  • Taxonomic status: Morphologically the holotype closely agrees with the description provided above for the leucocoma type except for a few small details as follows. Pruinescence of head and thorax is not as strong or extensive; the legs are uniformly orange and totally lack red-brown parts. Bearing in mind that the rueppelii holotype is a female and that some sexual dimorphism is evident in leucocoma everything points to leucocoma being a synonym of rueppelii. However, while I am reasonably sure that this will be the future taxonomic outcome, I refrain from establishing the synonymy until male specimens agreeing with leucocoma are found in Eritrea. This conservative approach also ensures retention of the well-known name, leucocoma, until further investigations of the Palaearctic Trichardis fauna have been undertaken.

Trichardis similis sp. n.
Figs 43, 44

  • Etymology: From Latin similis (similar). Refers to the similarity between the male genitalia of this species and crassipala.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Black, silver pruinose except for strip between ocellar tubercle and epistomal margin, setae black, white and pale yellow. Antenna dark red-brown to black, black setose; postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=4.3:1). Mystax shiny yellow-white with black macrosetae along epistomal margin. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown to black.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to black, silver pruinose except where apruinose, shiny yellowish setose. Postpronotum extensively apruinose except for narrow band medially, mesonotum apruinose except for narrow lateral and posterior margins, yellowish setose. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellowish posterior macroseta, pruinose except for large area anteroventrally. Proepimeron pruinose anteriorly, apruinose posteriorly; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum pruinose except for small central spot. Legs: Dark red-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.9:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.3×1.7 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose—discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown proximally becoming red-brown distally, apruinose, pale yellow setose. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 43, 44): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger long, strongly dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium moderately well developed with two pairs of lobes distally. Gonocoxites in ventral view with medially directed dorsal projections and lacking macrosetae; mediodistal projection well-developed, strongly sclerotised, broad with characteristic shape. Gonostylus short, slender, poorly developed, straight. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight, small, tapering to small terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Holotype: MALAWI: ♂ ‘Malawi Kasungu Nat. / Park Lifupa Camp / 1333Aa 9–10.xii.1980 / 1000 m Stuckenberg & / Londt, Brachystegia‘ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes: 1♂ same data as holotype; 1♀ ‘Malawi Chimaliro / forest reserve 1200 m / 1233Bc Stuckenberg & / Londt 9.xii.1980 / Brachystegia woodland’ (NMSA).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is recorded from two localities in Malawi. Adults are known to fly in December (Table 1), midsummer in the southern hemisphere. The type material was collected on the ground in Brachystegia woodland.

  • Similar species: A member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be easily separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. similis is most similar to crassipala in that both species have well-developed hypandria.

Trichardis spicata sp. n.
Figs 45, 46

  • Etymology: From Latin spica (point, spike). Refers to the long spike-like aedeagal projections.

  • Description (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown to black. Antenna dark red-brown to black, setae black, postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=5.0:1). Mystax white, with a few black macrosetae along epistomal margin, on plane and mostly shiny apruinose face (narrow pruinose strips along eye margins). Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown to black.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown to blackish, extensively apruinose, pruinose areas silvery. Postpronotum strongly silver pruinose medially, extensively apruinose laterally, mesonotum apruinose except for narrow silver pruinose margins, macrosetae pale yellow, fine setae yellow-white. Scutellum apruinose except for anterior margin. Anepisternum with longish pale yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose except for small apruinose area posteriorly, katepisternum pruinose except for small apruinose part anteriorly, anepisternum pruinose. Legs: Dark red-brown, tibiae paler brownish, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur dark red-brown, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles moderately developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.1×1.5 mm. Costal vein moderately developed along entire wing margin, but weak along anal cell and apparently absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose (except for small parts of some proximally situated cells)—discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, largely apruinose, terga weakly pruinose along hind margins. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose except for weak, narrow, silver pruinose posterior margin.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 45, 46): Epandrium in lateral view significantly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger long and moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium highly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view distally pointed, with moderately well-developed median hook-like projection distally and group of about 6 macrosetae laterally at midlength; mediodistal projection short, stout, straight, strongly sclerotised. Gonostylus short, stout. Aedeagal base with pair of projections that exceptionally long, slender, strongly sclerotised, and gently downcurved to pointed tips; prongs tiny, slightly curved, poorly developed distally.

  • Holotype: MOZAMBIQUE: ♂ ‘3.xii.2006 Mozambique / Sofala Prov. 30 km S Caia / 18.02S - 34.02E / P. Schüle leg.’ (MRAC).

  • Paratypes: 1♂ 1♀ same data and depository as holotype.

  • Distribution and biology: The species is known only from the type locality where it has been collected in December (Table 1). No biological data are available.

  • Similar species: A member of what is here called the ‘cribrata species group’ which consists of crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata and indica. These species are superficially similar, but can be easily separated on characters of the male genitalia. T. spicata has distinctive male genitalia that cannot be confused with any other species.

Trichardis terminalis Oldroyd, 1974
Figs 47, 48, 58

  • Trichardis terminalis: Oldroyd 1974: 118 (figs 109 ♂ genitalia, 110 ♀ genitalia); 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on holotype in fair condition; following parts missing: right antennae beyond pedicel, left pro- and mesothoracic legs, right prothoracic tarsus, right wing):

  • Head: Orange-brown anteriorly dark red-brown posteriorly, but colours masked by silver pruinescence, yellow and white setose. Antenna brown-orange except for red-brown distal part of postpedicel and style, yellowish setose; postpedicel clavate (L:D=2.7:1). Mystax shiny yellowish. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown with red-brown patches, colours masked by silver pruinescence, yellowish setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum red-brown with dark red-brown dorsal stripe and broad lateral bands, extensively pruinose except for central area, shiny yellowish setose. Scutellum pruinose except for posterior margin. Anepisternum with yellow posterior macroseta, dorsally pruinose, ventrally apruinose. Proepimeron pruinose anteriorly, apruinose posteriorly; katepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly; anepisternum pruinose posteriorly, apruinose anteriorly.

  • Legs: Femora and distal half of hind tibiae red-brown, rest brown-yellow, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur red-brown with paler apices, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 6.1×2.3 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane devoid of microtrichiae, including discal and r5 cells.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, apruinose, shiny yellow setose. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 47, 48): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger well-developed, moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without dorsomedial projections and tapering to narrowly rounded tip carrying about 4 short macrosetae; mediodistal projection moderately stout, tapering to slender slightly upturned tip. Gonostylus well-developed, moderately slender, jutting out beyond mediodistal projection of gonocoxite, gently downcurved distally. Aedeagal prongs slender, sinuous in lateral view, with long terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Holotype (examined): ZIMBABWE: ♂ ‘S. Rhodesia / Umguza Valley [19°30′S:27°46′E] / 17.12.22 / Roy Stevenson’, ‘Trichardis / terminalis Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd, 1972 / Holotype’ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes (examined): BOTSWANA: 1♀ ‘Para- / type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘S. Africa: / Bechuanaland. / Ngamiland [ca 20°30′S:22°40′E], Nov. 1930–Jan. 1931. / G.D. Hale Carpenter. / B.M. 1931-160’, ‘trichardis /terminalis Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd 1972 / Paratype’ [white] (BMNH). ZIMBABWE: 1♀ ‘Country Rhodesia/ Loc. Chirundu [16°02′S:28°50′E] / Date 17.ii.65 / Coll. K Borthwick’, ‘Trichardis / terminalis Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd, 1972 / Paratype’; 1♀ ‘Country Rhodesia / Loc. Chirundu / Date 15.ii.65 / Coll. K Borthwick’, ‘Trichardis / terminalis Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd, 1972 / Paratype’; 1♀ ‘Para- / type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘Dovenby Farm. [19°53′S:28°29′E], / S. Rhodesia / 17.9.1922, Rhodesia / Museum’, ‘Trichardis / cribrata / Lw. / Dr. EO. Engel det.’, ‘Trichardis / terminalis Oldr. / det. H. Oldroyd 1972 / Paratype’ [white] (BMNH).

  • Note: In describing this species Oldroyd (1974) lists his material as follows: ‘Type in Pretoria. Type-locality: RHODESIA, Umguza Valley, 17.ix.22 (Roy Stevenson)’. He then states ‘Distribution. RHODESIA: Umguza Valley; Dovenby Farm; Chivundu (Borthwick). BOTSWANA: Ngamiland, 1931 (G. D. Hale Carpenter)’. The specimens he studied are in NMSA and BMNH and carry paratype labels. So although not formally listed in his publication, I accept the above specimens as the full type series.

  • Other material examined: BOTSWANA: 1♂ 2♀ Maxwee [19°28′S:23°40′E], ix.1976, Russell-Smith, Mopane woodland; 1♂ Kwaai [Khwai] R. 20 km W Moremi North gate [ca 19°S:23°E], 14.x.1977, Russell-Smith, Acacia giraffae woodland. NAMIBIA: 1♂ E Caprivi Linyanti [17°47′S:24°23′E], 9-17.x.1970, Strydom. TANZANIA: 1♂ Seranda Rd [?] K.I., 27.xi.1927, Nash (OXUM). ZIMBABWE: 2♂ 2♀ Rekomitjie Research Station [16°08′S:29°24′E], 14.x.1973 (1♂), 15.x.1973 (1♂ 1♀ ), 16.x.1973 (1♀), Phelps; 1♂ Sanyanti Valley [?Sanyati, 17°30′S:29°23′E], ix–x.1925, Stevenson; 12♂ 8♀ 2? Triangle [21°02′S:31°27′E], 19.ix.1963 (5♂ 3♀ ), 21.ix.1963 (5♂ 4♀ 1?), 23.ix.1963 (2♂ 1♀ 1?), Moore (NMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is known mainly from a relatively small area of southern Africa (Fig. 58), being recorded from Botswana, Namibia (the Caprivi) and Zimbabwe. A single record from Tanzania suggests a wider distribution. Adults fly between September and February (no record for January) (Table 1). Label data indicate that the species lives in both Acacia and Mopane woodland.

  • Similar species: T. terminalis has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, ornata, picta, testacea, turneri and zinidi. The species is, however, most similar to grisescens.

Trichardis testacea (Macquart, 1838)
Figs 1–3, 49, 50, 60

  • Laphria testacea Macquart, 1838: 63.

  • Trichardis testacea Hermann, 1906: 137–139 [Junior synonym and junior secondary homonym, preocc. testacea Macquart, 1838]; Kertész 1909: 159; Engel 1924: 109–110; Hull 1962: 97.

  • Trichardis testacea Macquart: Oldroyd 1974: 120 (figs 107 entire ♀, 108 wing); 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on a ♂ syntype of T. testacea Hermann in good condition):

  • Head: Orange anteriorly red-brown distally, somewhat masked by silver pruinescence, white and pale yellow setose. Antenna orange with red-brown style, pale yellow setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.3:1). Mystax pale yellow. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi orange-brown.

  • Thorax: Orange, fine silver pruinose, yellow and white setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum extensively apruinose except for silver pruinose lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae shiny orange, setulae white. Scutellum apruinose except for small spots laterally. Anepisternum with orange posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Orange, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange, length:height ratio 3.7:1, ventral tubercles absent. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.6×2.2 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then proceeding more weakly along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane microtrichose only in distal half-discal cell entirely microtrichose, cell r5 extensively microtrichose but weak to absent in proximal half. Wing membrane with orange stained areas.

  • Abdomen: Orange, terga somewhat reddish laterally, each tergum with a small silver pruinose spot posterolaterally, setae pale yellow, setulae minute shiny whitish. T2 yellowish orange, laterally somewhat reddish, apruinose except for small posterolateral spot.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 49, 50): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger short, moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple in structure. Gonocoxite in ventral view without obvious projections distally and with about 5 medially directed distal macrosetae; mediodistal projection moderately stout with upturned sclerotised tip. Gonostylus stout with broad flange-like distal tip. Aedeagal prongs small, fairly straight, with small terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Type material examined: I have not studied the Macquart types as I am unable to establish their whereabouts. I have studied a number of specimens, in three different collections, that have been labelled as ‘types’ or ‘cotypes’ of testacea Hermann. While it is difficult to establish exactly which of these were actually used by Hermann for his 1906 publication it is certain that at least some of them were not available to him. As Hermann's description was based on males (number not stated) from ‘Capland, Willowmore (Dr. Brauns)’ I suggest that the following three specimens can be accepted as syntypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ ‘Willowmore [33°17′S:23°29′E] / Capland / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / testacea ♂ / Herm.’ [orange], ‘Capland / Trichardis / testacea / Type Hr.’ [pink] (ZSMC); 1♂ ‘Capland / Willowmor [Willowmore] / 1.2 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / ♂ testacea / Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1♂ ‘Cotype’, ‘Capland / Willowmor / 6 12 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Diptera / Asilidae / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’, ‘Cotype / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’ [green] (AMGS).

    The following specimens are females or were either collected at another locality or in the year following the appearance of the description and so should be excluded from any list of syntypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1♀ ‘Lichtenburg [26°09′S:26°10′E] / Transvaal / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis ♀ / testacea / Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1♂ [without type label] ‘Capland / Willowmor / 15.2 1907 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Trichardis / testacea / ♂ Lw/Herm.’ [white] (ZSMC); 1♀ ‘Capland / Willowmor / 1 1 1907 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’, ‘Trichardis / testacea / Cotype / Hermann’ (MCMI); 1♀ ‘Willowmore / Capland / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / testacea ♀ / Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1♀ ‘Cotype’, ‘Capland / Willowmor / 12 12 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Cotype / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’ [green] (AMGS). Notes: Macquart (1838) described his species briefly on female specimens (number not stated) from ‘Du Cap’. Unfortunately Hermann (1906), unaware of Macquart's species, placed in another genus, described his species using the same name, thus creating a homonym. Engel (1924) subsequently provided a brief description in a key, recording for testacea Hermann ‘2♂ 2♀ Willowmore, Kapland, Dr. Brauns leg.’ and indicated (p. 106) that ‘testacea Mcq. 1838 [Laphria] ist ein Storthyngomerus‘. This unlikely identification was checked by Oldroyd (1970: footnote on p. 247) and found to be incorrect-the homonymy of Hermann's species with that of Macquart being fully supported.

  • Other material examined: BOTSWANA: 8♂ 14♀ Farmer's Brigade Serowe, 2226BD, 21.xii.1982 (1♂), 20.x.1984 (1♂), 31.x.1984 (1♀), xii.1985 (2♂ 2♀ ), 3.xii.1985 (1♂), 9.xi.1988 (1♀ ), 8.xii.1988 (1♂), ix.1989 (1♂ 3♀ ), x.1989 (3♀ ), x.1990 (1♂ 3♀ ), 28.xi.1990 (1♀ ), Forchhammer; 4♂ 6♀ same place, x.1989 (2♂ 4♀), xi.1989 (1♂ 1♀ ), xii.1989 (1♂), ii.1990 (1♀ ), Forchhammer, Mercury V.L. light trap (NHRS); 1♂ Close to Otse [23°10′S:21°00′E] Vultury, 6.xi.1993, Viklund (NHRS); 1♂ Gaberones [24°39′S:25°54′E], ii.1915, Ellenberger (MNHN); 1♂ Sanitas garden Gaberones Dam, 7–19.xi.1993, Viklund (NHRS). NAMIBIA: 1♀ Kunene, Epupa Falls, 17°00′S:13°15′E, 22.ii.1995, Koch (ZMBH); 1♂ 1♀ Kaoko Otavi [18°18′S:13°42′E], iii.1926, Mus. Exped. (SAMC); 1♂ Etosha-Pan, Namutoni [18°48′S:16°59′E], 23.i.1993, Koch (ZMHB); 1♀ Brandberg Tsisab Valley [21°01′S:14°41′E], viii.1948, Strey. SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ 1♀ Messina Nat. Res., 22°24′54″S:30°05′12″E, 487 m, 14.ii.2005, Londt & Dikow, Mopane dry woodland Sand R. [habitat]; 1♀ Soutpansberge Soutpan, 2229CD, 23–24.ii.1980, Londt & Schoeman, bushveld vegetation; 1♂ 37 km N Louis Trichardt, 2229DD, i.1975, Stuckenberg, arid bushveld; 1♀ Swartruggens Marico [25°39′S:26°42′E], 15.i.1901, Brauns; 1♂ 2♀ Wolmaransstad [27°12′S:25°58′E], 20.x.1963 (1♀ ), 23.x.1963 (1♂ 1♀ ), Moore (NMNH); 1♂ Kroonstad [27°40′S:27°14′E], 29.xi.1965, Brothers (AMGS); 1♀ 35 km SE Noenieput, 2720CB, 20.iii.1982, Londt & Schoeman, flowers on roadside; 1? Cape Colony, Windsorton [28°20′S:24°43′E], 20.xii.1920, Brauns; 1♂ Modder R., Brandfort Dist. [2826CD], xi.1939, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 1♂ Grootvlei [29°13′S:26°18′E], 9.xii.1913, Munro (SANC); 1♂ Grootvlei, 9.xii.1914; 1♀ Wyk's Vlei [Vanwyksvlei] [30°21′S:21°49′E], Alston (NMNH); 1♂ Wyk's Vlei, 1885, Alston (BMNH); 1♂ Wyk's Vlei, 1886, Alston (SAMC); 1♀ Vanwyksfontein, 8 km W Norvalspont [30°38′S:25°27′E], 16.i.1985, Gess (AMGS); 1♂ 2♀ Norval's Pont [30°38′S:25°27′E], 9.xii.1971, Greathead (BMNH); 1♂ 1♀ Aliwal North [30°42′S:26°42′E], 1326 m, 1–13.1923 [?], Turner (BMNH); 3♂ Lady Grey [30°42′S:27°14′E], 30.xii.1924, 6.i.1925, 6.i.1926, Nel; 1♂ Lady Grey, 22.xii.1925, Nel (BMNH); 1♂ 13 km NW Carnarvon V. Wyksvlei Rd, 3022CC, 14.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, dry riverbed Acacias; 1♀ Carnarvon [30°57′S:22°08′E] (SAMC); 1♀ Steynsburg [31°19′S:24°20′E], 1910, Ellenberger (MNHN); 1♀ Richmond Dist. [31°25′S:23°56′E], iii.1931, Museum Staff (SAMC); 1♂ 1♀ Middelburg [31°29′S:25°01′E], 13.ii.1925, Munro (NMNH); 5♂ 4♀ 14 m E Middelburg, Cape Province, 8–14.xii.1960, Brown, Fürst & Haacke (SANC); 1♀ 5 km N Nieuwoudtville, 3119AC, 760 m, 16.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, stream macchia; 1♂ Visrivier 50 km E Calvinia on Williston Rd, 31°26′15″S:20°16′48″E, 990 m, 10.xi.1998, Londt, river edge vegetation; 2♂ 10 km W Williston, 3120BD, 1060 m, 15.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, sand/Acacias’; 2♀ Cacadu R. nr Lady Frere, 3127CA, 27.x.1978, Londt & Miller, river bank; 1♀ 23 km N Middelpos, 31°44′S:20°14′E, 29.xi.1990, 1170 m, Whittington & Londt, at Kookfontein R.; 1♂ nr Perdefontein, E Middelpos, 31°45′S:20°44′E, 11.xii.1988, Eardley (SANC); 1♂ Queenstown [31°54′S:26°53′E], 16.i–10.ii.1923, Turner (BMNH); 1♀ Dunedin [31°57′S:22°25′E], 1.xi.1979, Whitehead (SAMC); 4♂ 1♀ Murraysburg Dist. [31°57′S:23°46′E], xi.1935, Museum Staff (SAMC); 1♂ 1♀ 23 km SE Middelpos, 32°01′S:20°25′E, 1200 m, 28.xi.1990, Whittington & Londt, banks of Visrivier; 1♀ Cape of Good Hope, Nels Poort [32°07′S:23°00′E], 5.xii.1933, Ogilvie (BMNH); 1♂ Ingleside, Cradock [32°11′S:25°37′E], iv.1914, Brincker (BMNH); 1♂ Cradock, i.1915, Brincker (BMNH); 1♀ Goshen nr Cathcart [32°13′S:27°03′E], iii.1954, S.A. Museum (SAMC); 1♂ 1♀ Graaff-Reiner Urquhart Park Caravan Park, 32°15′S:24°33′E, 4–6.xii.1988, Londt, riverine vegetation, sandy ground; 1♀ Urquhart Park Caravan Park in Graaff-Reinet, 32°15′S:24°33′E, 7.xii.1989, Londt, Acacia savannah nr dam; 1♂ Graaf-Reinet [Graaff-Reinet, 32°17′S:24°28′E], 19.xi.1959, Greathead (BMNH); 8♂ 7♀ Rietvlei Nieuveld Escarpment [32°20′S:21°30′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♂ Beaufort West Dist. [32°21′S:22°35′E], ii.1958, SAM (SAMC); 1♀ Renoster R. Tankwa Karoo [32°25′S:20°00′E], xi.1952, Mus. Expd. (SAMC); 5♂ 10♀ 1? Aberdeen [32°29′S:24°05′E], xi.1935, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 1♂ Katberg [32°31′S:26°38′E], 1219 m, xi.1932, Turner (BMNH); 1♀ Merweville Lainsburg Dist. [32°40′S:21°31′E], i.1959, Zinn (SAMC); 4♂ 2♀ Merweville, i–ii.1947, Zinn (SAMC); 1♀ Dikbome Merweville Koup, i.1953, Zinn (SAMC); 3♂ 2♀ Gardiner's Drift Adelaide [32°42′S:26°18′E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 2♂ Somerset East [32°43′S:25°35′E], 1–9.xii.1930, Turner (BMNH); 4♂ Somerset East, 25–30.xi.1930, Turner (BMNH); 1♂ Cookhouse [32°45′S:25°49′E], 8.ii.1925, Munro HK (NMNH); 2♂ 1♀ Cookhouse, iii.1954, S.A. Museum (SAMC); 1♂ Fort Willshire nr Alice [32°47′S:26°50′E], 21.i.1959, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 5♂ 3♀ Umdala Fort Beaufort [32°48′S:26°39′E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 2♀ Mountain Zebra Nat Park, 3225AD, 17–21.xii.1985, Londt, Bushveld vegetation; 2♂ 3♀ 16 km E Cradock Farm “Who can tell”, 3225BB, 11.iii.1972, Irwin; 1♀ Meiringspoort, 3322BC, 11–12.xii.1979, Londt & Stuckenberg, rocky hillside & stream edge; 1♂ 22 km NW Grahamstown, Clifton Farm, 3326AB, 3–5.i.1986, Londt & Gess, arid area; 1♂ Tierberg Res. Stat. Prince Albert Dist., 33°07′42″S:22°16′24″E, 26.xi–5.xii.1987, Gess (AMGS); 1♂ Fort Brown [33°08′S:26°37′E], 23.ii.1928, Walton (AMGS); 1♀ Fort Brown area, 33°08′38″S:26°38′37″E, 314 m, 21.x.2004, Londt, Euphorbia & Aloe sp. nr farm “Resolution”; 8♂ 5♀Grahamstown, Resolution [farm] [33°10′S:26°37′E], 6.ii. (2♂), 1.iv. (1♀), 1.xii. (1♂), 13.xii 1928 (1♀), 9.i. (1♂), 11.i. (1♂), 12.i. (1♀), 15.i. (1♀), 18.i. (1♀), 24.i. (1♂), 26.i.1929 (2♂), Walton; 3♂ 2♀same place, 1930, Walton (SAMC); 1♀Spitzkop Laingsburg [33°12′S:20°50′E], iii.1937, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 2♂ Oukloof Beaufort West [33°15′S:22°06′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♂ 1♀Alicedale New Year's Dam, 3326AC, 5.xi.1978, Miller & Londt, dam edge; 5♂ 2♀1? Willowmore [33°17′S:23°29′E], 1.xii. (2♂ 1♀), 7.xii. (1?), 10.xii.1920 (2♂ 1♀), 3.i.1927 (1♂), Brauns; 1♂ Willowmore, Brauns (NMNH); 1♂ 1♀Willowmore, 1.xii.1920, Brauns (NMNH); 1♂ 1♀Willowmore, 10.xii.1909 (1♂), ii.1914, Brauns (SAMC); 2♂ 3♀Willowmore, ii.1908 (2♂), xi.1909 (2♀), 25.xii.1915 (1♀), Brauns (MRAC); 1♂ Willowmore, 12.xii.1906, Brauns (BMNH); 2♂ 1♀Willowmore, 15.i.1907 (1♀), 15.xii. 25.xii. (1♂), 1915 (1♂), Brauns (MCMI); 1♀Willowmore, 1907 Brauns (ZSMC — While labelled a syntype, this specimen was collected a year after Herman's description); 1♀Willowmore, Brauns (BMNH); 1? Willowmore Modderfontein, 7.xii.1920, Brauns; 2♀Grahamstown [33°18′S:26°32′E], iii.1971, Londt; 1♂ Grahamstown, 29.xi.1964, Brothers (AMGS); 2♂ Grahamstown, 21.xii.1971, Greathead (BMNH); 1♀2 km S Grahamstown, 33°20′S:26°31′E, 800 m, 20.xi.1990, Londt & Whittington, Dassie Krantz forest; 2♀Rooinek Lainsburg Dist. [33°20′S:20°55′E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1♂ 30 km E of Touws R. to Hondewater [33°20′S:20°02′E], xii.1962, SAM (SAMC); 1♀Dunbrody [33°28′S:25°33′E], 1897, O'Neil (SAMC); 1♂ nr Highgate Ostrich Farm Oudtshoorn [33°35′S:22°12′E], 10.xii.1986, Gess (AMGS); 1♂ Frischgewaagd Oudtshoorn, 33°39′29″S:22°13′18″E, 7–8.xii.1986, Gess (AMGS); 1♀Dr Hoek Uitenhage [33°45′S:25°24′E], 11.iii.1919, Munro; 1♂ Table farm Grahamstown, 12–25.ii.1971, Gess (AMGS); 1♂ Strowan Grahamstown, 11.vii.1968, Gess (AMGS); 2♂ 8♀Hilton Grahamstown, 5.xi.1969 (1♀), 21.xii.1976 (1♂), 13.xii.1977 (1♂), 14.ii. (1♀), 23.ii. (1♀), 28.ii. (1♀), 17.iii. (2♀), 21.iii.1978 (1♀), 30.i.1986 (1♀), Gess (AMGS); 1♂ 1♀Pluto's Vale Grahamstown, 6.iii.1960, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 2♂ 2♀Boesmans R. [33°42′S:26°40′E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 1♀Algoa Bay [Port Elizabeth, 33°58′S:25°35′E], 25.xii.1896, Brauns (NHMW); 1♀Mossel Bay [34°11′S:22°08′E], 15–28.iii.1922, Turner (BMNH); 1♂ Mossel Bay, ii.1922, Turner (BMNH); 1♂ Cap [Cape] (NHMW); 3♀C.B.Sp. [on general label not attached to specimens = Cape of Good Hope] (OXUM). ZIMBABWE: 1♀Zambezi, Victoria Falls [17°55′S:25°51′E], vii.1914, Brincker (BMNH); 1♂ 1♀Sarowa B.B. [?], 17.x.1923, Stevenson (SAMC).

  • Distribution and biology: A fairly commonly encountered, widely distributed and easily recognised southern African species (Fig. 60), being recorded from Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and many localities in South Africa. The species is absent from the winterrainfall area, the eastern highlands and subtropical coastal areas of southern Africa. Adults fly between July and April (Table 1). Personal experience and label data indicate that the species lives predominantly in dry woodland (Acacia and Mopane) and is often associated with sandy stream banks or dry river courses where they are found resting on the ground. Little biological information is available. I am aware of five prey records, four in NMSA collection and one in AMGS. These are: 1♂ 3♀(from Oudtshoorn, 16 km E Cradock, Soutpan & Middelpos respectively) pinned with sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), 1♀(16 km E Cradock) pinned with a spider-hunting wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Engel and Cuthbertson (1934) record for testacea ‘Many of both sexes were taken along native paths in mopani forest in December, 1930, at Nympani Vlei near Gatooma. One female has been compared with the type’.

  • Similar species: T. testacea has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, ornata, picta, terminalis, turneri and zinidi. Although the species is distinctive in having a number of unique features, such as the clearly marked wings, it is perhaps most similar to ornata.

Trichardis turneri Oldroyd, 1974
Figs 51, 52, 58

  • Trichardis turneri: Oldroyd 1974: 120; 1980: 356 (catalogue).

  • Redescription (based on paratype ♂ from type locality in excellent condition):

  • Head: Dark red-brown except for outer borders of face which are brown-orange, extensively silver pruinose (weak on face centrally), white setose. Antenna brown-orange, postpedicel red-brown with brown-orange base, setae orange and black; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.2:1). Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 2 macrosetae. Proboscis dark red-brown, palpi red-brown.

  • Thorax: Brown-orange with dark red-brown areas, extensively silver pruinose, yellow and white setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum dark red-brown with brown-orange borders, apruinose except for lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae pale yellow, setulae white. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except for a small anteroventral area. Proepimeron pruinose but weakly posteriorly, katepisternum pruinose but weakly anteriorly, anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Brown-orange, femora orange-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange-brown, length:height ratio 3.3:1, ventral tubercles well-developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.2×2.2 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose but microtrichiae absent from parts of proximally situated cells; discal and r5 cells entirely microtrichose.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, apruinose, macrosetae pale yellow setulae white. T2 dark red-brown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 51, 52): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without projections and with about 13 distally arranged macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout, with upturned sclerotised tip. Gonostyli stout, converging distally and ending in upturned slightly curved tips. Aedeagal prongs small, fairly straight.

  • Holotype (examined): SOUTH AFRICA: ♂ ‘Holo- / type’ [circular, red edge], ‘S.W. Africa. / R. E. Turner. / Brit. Mus. / 1931-12.’, ‘Trichardis / turneri Oldr / det. H. Oldroyd 1972 / Holotype’ [white], ‘Cape Province: / Somerset East. [32°43′S:25°35′E] Nov. 25–30 1930’ (BMNH).

  • Paratypes (examined; all BMNH): SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ ‘Para- / type’, ‘Aliwal North [30°42′S:26°42′E], / Cape Province. / Dec. 1922’, ‘S. Africa. / R. E. Turner. / Brit. Mus. / 1932–45’; 6♂ 2♀1? ‘Para- / type’ [circular with yellow border], ‘Cape Province / Somerset East. / Nov. 25–30.1930.’, ‘SW Africa / R.E. Turner / Brit. Mus. / 1931–12’; 1♀‘Para- / type’, ‘Cape Province / Somerset East. / 10–22.xii.1930.’, ‘S. Africa / R.E. Turner / Brit. Mus. / 1931–37’.

  • Other material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: 1♂ 2♀Parys [26°54′S:27°27′E], ARC, Fry (SAMC); 1♀Bothaville [27°22′S:26°37′E], 30.xii.1964, Brothers (AMGS); 1♂ 1♀Verdun Kommadagga Dist. [30°18′S:20°59′E], 1.xii.1985, Gess (AMGS); 2♂ Dreunberg Burghersdorp [30°59′S:26°19′E], xi.1939, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 1♂ 2♀3 km E Cradock, 32°10′02″S:25°40′09″E, 956 m, 29.x.2004, Londt, Acacia scrubland with many wild flowers; 1♂ Urquhart Park Caravan Park Graaff-Reinet, 32°15′S:24°33′E, 4–6.xii.1988, Londt, riverine vegetation, sandy ground; 1♂ Klein Visrivier c. 10 km W Somerset East, 32°44′S:25°30′E, 800 m, 6.xii.1989, Londt, rocky ridge & stream; 2♂ 2♀Willowmore [33°17′S:23°29′E], 20.i.1908 (1♂), ii.1914 (1♂), xii.1914 (1♀), 25.xii.1914 (1♀), Brauns; 1♀Willowmore, 10.i.1908, Brauns (SAMC); 1♂ Bathurst [33°31′S:26°50′E], 14.i.1959, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS).

  • Distribution and biology: A South African endemic restricted to the central parts of the country (Fig. 58). Adults recorded in summer between October and February (Table 1). The species has been collected on sandy ground in Acacia scrubland and in the vicinity of a stream. The biology is otherwise unknown.

  • Similar species: T. turneri has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, ornata, picta, terminalis, testacea and zinidi. The species is distinctive, especially with respect to male genital form.

Trichardis zinidi sp. n.
Figs 53, 54

  • Etymology: Named for the collector Dr I. Abu-Zinid, who donated a number of East African Asilidae to the Natal Museum.

  • Redescription (based on holotype in excellent condition):

  • Head: Orange-brown anteriorly dark red-brown posteriorly, colours masked by silver pruinescence covering entire head, pale yellow and white setose. Antenna brown-orange, postpedicel dark red-brown, yellow setose; postpedicel clavate (L:D=2.6:1). Mystax shiny yellowish. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Orange-brown and dark red-brown patches, gold-silver pruinose, shiny pale yellow setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum extensively apruinose centrally margins silver pruinose, macrosetae and setulae shiny yellowish. Scutellum apruinose except for narrow anterior margin. Anepisternum with pale yellow posterior macroseta, pruinose except for large anteroventral area. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Orange-brown, femora dark red-brown dorsally, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange-brown, dark redbrown dorsally, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.8×1.8 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then very weakly developed along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane extensively microtrichose; discal cell microtrichose but weak proximally, cell r5 microtrichose in distal half only.

  • Abdomen: Dark red-brown, extensively silver pruinose, shiny pale yellowish setose. T2 dark red-brown, extensively pruinose (central area apruinose).

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 53, 54): Epandrium in lateral view slightly longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view lacking projections and with about 6 medially directed distal macrosetae; mediodistal projections stout, converging distally, with fairly sharply upturned sclerotised distal part. Gonostyli well-developed, bulky, converging distally to upturned flange-like tips. Aedeagal prongs small, more or less straight, with small terminal filamentous tubules.

  • Holotype: KENYA: ♂ ‘Kenya: Kajiado Dist. / Nguruman area 700 m / 01°50′S:36°56′E / coll: I. Abu-Zinid / Date: 28.iv.1990’ (NMSA).

  • Paratypes: KENYA: 1♀same data as holotype (NMSA). TANZANIA: 1♀‘Tanzania: 10 km N-NE / di Mto Wa Mbu [?], presso bosco / di euforbia (1100 m), alla luce’ (MZUF). UNKNOWN: 1♀‘Afrique / Laga Arba [?] / 25 juillet’, ‘Museum Paris’, ‘Trichardis / H. Oldroyd det. 1965’ (MNHN).

  • Distribution and biology: Recorded from Kenya and Tanzania. Adults collected in April and July (Table 1). Little label data relating to habitat preference exists, although one specimen is labelled ‘presso bosco di euforbia’ which suggests an arid environment. The life history and prey preferences are unknown.

  • Similar species: T. zinidi has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis, grisescens, ornata, picta, terminalis, testacea and turneri. The species is, however, most similar to apicalis.

ORIENTAL SPECIES

While this paper focuses on the Afrotropical fauna I have identified a single new species of Trichardis from India that represents the first record of the genus from the Oriental Region.

Trichardis indica sp. n.
Figs 55, 56

  • Etymology: Named after the country of origin, India.

  • Description (based mainly on holotype, that is in fair condition, but some details taken from paratype; the holotype is missing both mesothoracic legs and parts of the right metathoracic leg, mesonotum and scutellum appear to have been eaten away by dermestid beetles; the paratype is in fair condition although somewhat ‘greasy’):

  • Head: Dark red-brown, extensively dull silver pruinose except for central face, setae pale yellow and white. Antennae red-brown, pale yellow setose except for a few black setae on pedicel; postpedicel elongate spindle-shaped (L:D=3.7:1), with few pale setulae dorsally. Mystax pale yellowish, fairly well-developed. Ocellar tubercle with 2 strong pale yellowish macrosetae. Occipital setae whitish. Proboscis and palpi dark red-brown.

  • Thorax: Dark red-brown, largely apruinose with dull silver pruinose parts, fine setae yellowish, more major setae shiny yellowish. Postpronotum largely apruinose except for narrow medial part, mesonotum largely apruinose except for margins, macrosetae shiny pale yellow, setulae yellowish. Scutellum dark red-brown, apruinose except for anterior margin. Anepisternum with slender pale yellow posterior macroseta, extensively pruinose except anteroventrally. Proepimeron anteriorly pruinose, posteriorly apruinose; katepisternum posteriorly pruinose, anteriorly apruinose; anepisternum largely apruinose. Legs: Orange-brown, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur uniformly orange-brown, length:height ratio 3.6:1, ventral tubercles poorly developed, major setae pale yellowish. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 4.0×1.6 mm. Costal vein extends around most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Wing membrane extensively microtrichose—discal cell microtrichose, except for tiny proximal part, cell r5 microtrichose, but weakly so proximally.

  • Abdomen (entire abdomen macerated): Terga red-brown with orange-brown central parts, apruinose, setae transparent yellowish. T2 orange-brown, apruinose.

    ♂ genitalia (Figs 55, 56): Epandrium in lateral view slightly shorter than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger small, moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in lateral view somewhat extended proximally and tip somewhat clavate, in ventral view without median projections distally and with long mediodistal setae; mediodistal projection moderately developed with pointed distal end. Gonostylus uniquely shaped-fairly broad basal part, in lateral view, with a long slender subapically positioned dorsal projection that projects out to a similar degree to mediodistal lobe of gonocoxite. Aedeagal prongs more or less straight, with small terminal tubules.

  • Holotype: INDIA: ♂ ‘Region Himalayenne / Kurséong [26°56′N:80°18′E] (1500 m alt.)’, ‘Museum Paris / Inde / P. Caïus 1924’ (MNHN).

  • Paratype: 1♀same data as holotype.

  • Note: I have seen and recorded below another specimen from India that was not available at the time this description was drafted. While I list it here, it has no type status and indeed needs to be confirmed as belonging to T. indica: 1♂ ‘Coimbatore [11°02′N:76°59′E] / S. India 15-iv-37’ ∼ ‘B.M. - C.M. Expdn. / to South India. / April–May 1937’ (BMNH).

  • Distribution and biology: The species is known with certainty from the type locality only. Phenology is uncertain, but a specimen that may be conspecific was collected in April. Nothing is known of its biology.

  • Similar species: This species is of particular interest as it is clearly morphologically most similar to the group of Afrotropical species that has here been called the ‘cribrata species group’. The group is made up of eight species, including indica and the following African taxa—crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis and spicata. These are generally small, darkly sclerotised species with entirely microtrichose wings. They are difficult to key without reference to the male genitalia that serve to easily separate the species. T. indica has distinctive male genitalia.

Key to Afrotropical species of Trichardis

Although the following key attempts to separate species without reference to characters of the male genitalia it is preferable that well preserved males are used and that identifications are confirmed by comparisons of the genitalia with the illustrations provided.

1 Anepisternal macroseta absent; pulvilli reduced in size and clearly shorter than empodium [unknown for rueppelii]; T2 entirely pruinose; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 27, 28 (Niger, Yemen and various Palaearctic countries) leucocoma (Wulp, 1899) & rueppelii (Wiedemann, 1828)

— Anepisternal macroseta present; pulvilli normal and approximately equal in length to empodium; T2 at least partly, if not entirely apruinose 2

2 Postpronotal lobe entirely pruinose 3

— Postpronotal lobe partly to extensively apruinose 10

3 Scutellum extensively apruinose 4

— Scutellum extensively pruinose 8

4 Cell r5 extensively microtrichose; usually 2 ocellar macrosetae; hind femur with a few well-developed ventral tubercles (some higher than broad); ♂ genitalia as in Figs 51, 52 (South Africa) turneri Oldroyd, 1974

— Cell r5 microtrichose only in distal half; usually 4 ocellar macrosetae; hind femur with at most poorly developed ventral tubercles (broader than high) 5

5 Anepisternum entirely pruinose (even if only weakly anteroventrally) 6

— Anepisternum apruinose anteroventrally 7

6 T2 yellowish; costal vein continues around wing margin beyond wing tip; wing membrane with distinct dark markings; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 49, 50 (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe) testacea (Macquart, 1838)

— T2 dark red-brown; costal vein continues weakly, if at all, around wing margin beyond wing tip; wing membrane without distinct markings; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 35, 36 (Chad) ornata sp. n.

7 Discal cell extensively microtrichose; hind femur dark red-brown; T2 dark red-brown; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 53, 54 (Kenya, Tanzania) zinidi sp. n.

— Discal cell entirely lacking microtrichiae; hind femur brown-orange; T2 orange; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 7, 8 (Namibia, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe) apicalis Oldroyd, 1974

8 Anepisternum extensively apruinose; T2 apruinose 9

— Anepisternum entirely pruinose; T2 extensively pruinose (Namibia, South Africa) picta Hermann, 1906

9 Scutellar disc entirely pruinose; male terminalia not markedly elongate, as in Figs 19, 20 (Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Senegal) grisescens Engel, 1924

— Scutellar disc partly apruinose (i.e. weak centrally); male terminalia markedly elongate, as in Figs 47, 48 (Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe) terminalis Oldroyd, 1974

10 Hind tibia with well-developed ventrodistal spur 11

— Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur 12

11 Mystax entirely blackish; T2 entirely apruinose; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 25, 26 (Somalia) lavignei sp. n.

— Mystax with both shiny yellowish and black macrosetae; T2 apruinose except for silver pruinose patches posterolaterally; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 23, 24 (DR Congo, Tanzania) katangaensis Oldroyd, 1970

12 Discal cell lacking microtrichiae, especially proximally and adjacent to veins 13

— Discal cell extensively microtrichose (members of cribrata species group) 18

13 Mystax entirely white, yellow or orange, lacking black setae; antennal segments predominantly yellowish or light brownish 14

— Mystax with some black setae; antennal segments entirely or almost entirely dark red-brown 16

14 Antennal postpedicel clavate (L:D < 3.0); costal vein ends at wing tip; veins R5+M1, M2 and M3+CuA1 not reaching wing margin (Fig. 4); cell r5 almost entirely lacking microtrichiae; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 15, 16 (Namibia, South Africa) effrena sp. n.

— Antennal postpedicel spindle shaped (L:D > 3.0); costal vein continues around wing tip and along much of hind margin of wing; veins R5+M1, M2 and M3+CuA1 reaching wing margin (e.g. Fig. 3); cell r5 at least weakly microtrichose 15

15 A yellowish or orange species; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 31, 32 (Eritrea) mellina sp. n.

— A dark red-brown to blackish species; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 17, 18 (Gambia) glabra sp. n.

16 Postpronotal and postalar lobes orange and contrasting with dark red-brown to blackish mesonotum; legs ventrally orange-brown; smaler species (wing length ca 4.0 mm); ♂ genitalia as in Figs 41, 42 (Socotra I., Yemen) pohli Geller-Grimm, 2002

— Postpronotal and postalar lobes blackish and not contrasting with mesonotum; legs uniform dark red-brown to blackish; bigger species (wing length ca 5.5 mm) 17

17 Mesonotal macrosetae, anepisternal seta(e) and ocellar setae black; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 33, 34 (Socotra I., Yemen) nigrescens (Ricardo, 1903)

— Mesonotal macrosetae, anepisternal seta(e) and ocellar setae yellowish; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 5, 6 (Abd el Kuri I., Yemen) abdelkuri sp. n.

18 Pleural pruinescence confined to anepisternum (i.e. proepimeron, katepisternum and anepimeron uniformly pruinose); in males the greatly expanded (trumpet-like) distal tips of the three aedeagal openings are clearly visible; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 29, 30 (Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) malawi sp. n.

— Anterior part of katepisternum and posterior part of proepimeron shiny apruinose; male aedeagal openings not markedly trumpet-like 19

19 Anepimeron with an extensive apruinose area; ♂ genitalia as in Figs 21, 22 (Gambia, Senegal) hesperia sp. n. Note: The Oriental species, indica sp. n., from India, keys out here and can be separated from hesperia on characters of the ♂ genitalia, Figs 55, 56)

— Anepimeron entirely pruinose 20

20 Hypopygium dark red-brown and not contrasting with proximally situated abdominal terga 21

— Hypopygium dark somewhat orange and contrasting with proximally situated abdominal terga that are dark red-brown 22

21 ♂ genitalia as in Figs 11, 12 (Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe) cribrata (Loew, 1858)

— ♂ genitalia as in Figs 45, 46 (Mozambique) spicata sp. n.

22 ♂ genitalia as in Figs 9, 10 (Burkina Faso, Niger) crassipala sp. n.

— ♂ genitalia as in Figs 13, 14 (Ivory Coast, Nigeria) eburacta sp. n.

— ♂ genitalia as in Figs 43, 44 (Malawi) similis sp. n.

DISCUSSION

Taxonomy

Londt (2007a) discussed the situation regarding the characterisation of Afrotropical laphriine genera previously considered to belong to the subfamily Laphystiinae (i.e. Perasis, Hoplistomerus and Trichardis), saying that these rather similar genera had not been adequately separated using published keys. Londt (2007a) gave a provisional key to these genera stating that it would probably have to be updated following revisions of the genera. These studies have now been completed, and, although the provisional key works reasonably well for most of the species, a new key is provided below and is considered superior.

Key to genera of Afrotropical Laphriinae previously classified as Laphystiinae

1 C continues fairly strongly along entire wing margin, including anal cell and alula; postpronotal lobe without macrosetae; covered with tiny setulae only; hind femora slender (length/breadth ratio >5) and lacking tubercles; abdominal terga lacking discal setae beyond T1. ♂ genitalia: Epandrium in dorsal view deeply incised (i.e. lobes evident for about half length); hypandrium moderately well-developed and gonocoxites widely separated ventrally Perasis Hermann

— C continues fairly strongly along wing margin to Cu+A1 before becoming much weaker along anal cell and completely absent from alula; postpronotal lobe with at least a few long and sometimes strongly developed macrosetae; hind femora robust (length/breadth ratio <4), with a swollen appearance and usually equipped with tubercles; abdominal terga with discal setae beyond T1. ♂ genitalia: Epandrium in dorsal view hardly incised (i.e. not divided into lobes); hypandrium usually absent or at best poorly developed and gonocoxites usually closely associated ventrally 2

2 Antennal postpedicel elongate; proboscis large and protruding well beyond lower epistomal margin; hind tibia of male always with a distoventral spur; hind femur always with well-developed tubercles, the largest often coalescing with each other; usually large species (wing length >7 mm), commonly with golden abdominal setation. ♂ genitalia: Gonocoxite always with median projection which is usually elongate and distally directed, and lacking mediodistal macrosetae Hoplistomerus Macquart

— Antennal postpedicel moderately elongate to clavate; proboscis small and hardly protruding beyond lower epistomal margin; hind leg of male usually lacking a distoventral tibial spur; hind femur usually with tubercles, which, when present, do not coalesce; usually small species (wing length <7 mm) lacking obvious golden abdominal setation. ♂ genitalia: Gonocoxite rarely with median projection (when present it is short and medially directed) and commonly with mediodistal macrosetae Trichardis Hermann

When attempting to draw up a key to Afrotropical Trichardis it became evident that there was at least one fairly distinctive ‘species group’. The species in this group, comprising seven Afrotropical species (crassipala, cribrata, eburacta, hesperia, malawi, similis, spicata), were difficult to separate using easily observed external characters, but possess highly distinctive male genitalia. As only one of these species (cribrata) had been described, I suggest that the group be called the ‘cribrata species group’. Species in this group are widely distributed, occurring mainly in West Africa, but also in East and Southern Africa. Of interest is the fact that the newly described Oriental species (indica) appears also to belong to this group. There may be other groups that can be detected, but as these can only be very poorly defined I prefer to refrain from making further comment on the matter apart from saying that I believe ‘related’ or ‘sister species’ tend to key out together in the key provided above.

Distribution and phenology

Trichardis is widely distributed throughout the Afrotropical region (Fig. 57) where the vast majority of species are to be found. The genus is, however, also represented by a few widely scattered species within the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. Only one species, T. leucocoma, has been recorded from two regions. This species is primarily Palaearctic as there are only a few records of it in the Afrotropical region. The limited data available to me suggest, however, that it may be a more widely distributed than currently appreciated.

Of the 25 Afrotropical species, eight (32%) are found only in Southern Africa (apicalis, cribrata, effrena, picta, spicata, terminalis, testacea, turneri). Nine (36 %) are known only from Eastern Africa (abdelkuri, lavignei, mellina, nigrescens, ornata, pohli, rueppelii, similis, zinidi), three of these being confined to the small Yemenese islands of Socotra and Abd el Kuri (abdelkuri, nigrescens, pohli). Three (12 %) species are known only from Western Africa (eburacta, glabra, hesperia). Two species (8 %) are widespread between East and West Africa (crassipala, grisescens), one (4 %) is distributed between East and Central Africa (katangaensis), and another is found in both East and Southern Africa (malawi).

Bearing in mind that the genus is found straddling the equator, without exception, adult Trichardis appear to be active during the warmer, summer months of the year (Table 1).

Biology

Trichardis appears to be a genus largely restricted to grassland and savannah biomes. Fig. 57 demonstrates its absence from tropical and subtropical areas where forests dominate, and from the winter-rainfall area of the south-western parts of South Africa, which is dominated by succulents and fynbos. Nothing is known about the immature stages of any Trichardis species and biological data relating to the adults are fragmentary. It appears that all species are normally encountered resting on the ground (on sand or peddles) in savannah or woodland biomes (see Londt 1994). Londt (2006) mentions Trichardis in a discussion of asilid predation and this information is added here too. Only six prey records are known to me, four for T. testacea and two for T. picta. Except for a single dipteran (Tachinidae), all prey items are hymenopterans (4 Halictidae, 1 Masaridae, 1 Pompilidae). The possible predilection for Hymenoptera, and Halictidae in particular, is interesting, but probably not significant as these insects are also commonly found resting on the ground and therefore easily accessible as prey.

TABLE 1

Phenology of Afrotropical Trichardis species.

t01_171.gif

Figs 5–10.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (5, 6) lateral and ventral of T. abdelkuri sp. n., paratype, Jebel Saleh; (7, 8) lateral and ventral of T. apicalis Oldroyd, 1974, paratype, Ndumu Game Reserve; (9, 10) lateral and ventral of T. crassipala sp. n., paratype, Ouagadougou. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f05_171.jpg

Figs 11–16.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (11, 12) lateral and ventral of T. cribrata (Loew, 1858), Mhlopeni Nat. Res.; (13, 14) lateral and ventral of T. eburacta sp. n., paratype, Comoé National Park; (15, 16) lateral and ventral of T. effrena sp. n., paratype, Witsand Nat. Res. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f11_171.jpg

Figs 17–22.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (17, 18) lateral and ventral of T. glabra sp. n., paratype, Bansang; (19, 20) lateral and ventral of T. grisescens Engel, 1924, holotype; (21, 22) lateral and ventral of T. hesperia sp. n., paratype, Kayes. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f17_171.jpg

Figs 23–28.

Trichardis species: (23, 24) T. katangaensis Oldroyd, 1970, male genitalia, paratype, Kapanga: (23) lateral, (24) ventral; (25, 26) T. lavignei sp. n., holotype: (25) male genitalia, dorsolateral, (26) posterior view of distal end of right hind tibia; (27, 28) T. leucocoma (Wulp, 1899), male genitalia, paratype, Shaik Othman: (27) lateral, (28) ventral. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f23_171.jpg

Figs 29–34.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (29, 30) lateral and ventral of T. malawi sp. n., paratype, Monkey Bay; (31, 32) lateral and ventral of T. mellina sp. n., paratype, Ghinda; (33, 34) lateral and ventral of T. nigrescens (Ricardo, 1903), Homhil. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f29_171.jpg

Figs 35–40.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (35, 36) lateral and ventral of T. ornata sp. n., holotype, (note: X indicates broken structures); (37–40) T. picta Hermann, 1906: (37, 38) lateral and ventral of holotype, (39, 40) lateral and ventral of holotype of T. lucifer Oldroyd, 1974. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f35_171.jpg

Figs 41–46.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (41, 42) lateral and ventral of T. pohli Geller-Grimm, 2002, Sokotra I.; (43, 44) lateral and ventral of T. similis sp. n., paratype, Kasungu National Park; (45, 46) lateral and ventral of T. spicata sp. n., paratype, 30 km S Caia. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f41_171.jpg

Figs 47–52.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (47, 48) lateral and ventral of T. terminalis Oldroyd, 1974, holotype; (49, 50) lateral and ventral of T. testacea (Macquart, 1838), holotype; (51, 52) lateral and ventral of T. turneri Oldroyd, 1974, Graaff-Reinet. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f47_171.jpg

Figs 53–56.

Trichardis species, male genitalia: (53, 54) lateral and ventral of T. zinidi sp. n., holotype; (55, 56) lateral and ventral of T. indica sp. n., holotype. Scale lines = 1 mm.

f53_171.jpg

Fig 57.

The distribution of Afrotropical Trichardis species.

f57_171.jpg

Fig 58.

Distributions of southern African Trichardis species: fi01_171.gif - T. apicalis Oldroyd, 1974, fi02_171.gif - T. terminalis Oldroyd, 1974, fi03_171.gif - T. turneri Oldroyd, 1974.

f58_171.jpg

Fig 59.

Distributions of southern African Trichardis species: fi04_171.gif - T. cribrata (Loew, 1858), fi02_171.gif - T. effrena sp. n., 1974, fi03_171.gif - T. picta Hermann, 1906.

f59_171.jpg

Fig 60.

Distribution of Trichardis testacea (Macquart, 1838) in southern Africa.

f60_171.jpg

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Curators of the museums who have kindly hosted me or sent specimens for study are gratefully acknowledged for their participation and assistance. Dr Mike Mostovski (Natal Museum) is thanked for his encouragement and helpful editorial advice. Mrs Heidi Snyman (Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife) is thanked for generating the distribution maps. The University of KwaZulu-Natal allocated funding in support of my research, while the Natal Museum provided laboratory space and library services. I also wish to acknowledge the assistance of all the conservation authorities who have issued collecting permits over the many years I have been working on Afrotropical Asilidae. My wife Ann is thanked for all the assistance she has rendered me especially in relation to my field work.

REFERENCES

  1. E.E. Austen 1914. On Diptera collected in the western Sahara by Dr. Ernst Hartert, with descriptions of new species. Novitates Zoologicae 21: 265–274. Google Scholar
  2. T. Becker 1907. Die Ergebnisse meiner dipterologischen Frühjahrsreise nach Algier und Tunis. 906. [part.] Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 7: 33–61. Google Scholar
  3. H. C. Efflatoun 1937. A monograph of Egyptian Diptera. Part V. Family Asilidae (Section II). Mémoires de la Société Royal Entomologique d'Égypte 4 (3): 199–443 + pls IV–VIII. Google Scholar
  4. E.O. Engel 1924. Studien über afrikanische Dipteren (Asiliden). Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 41: 100– 110. Google Scholar
  5. E.O. Engel & A. Cuthbertson 1934. Systematic and biological notes on some Asilidae (Diptera) of Southern Rhodesia with a description of a species new to science. Proceedings of the Rhodesia Scientific Association 34 (1): 35–47. Google Scholar
  6. E.O. Engel & A. Cuthbertson 1939. Systematic and biological notes on some brachycerous Diptera of Southern Rhodesia. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 11: 181–195. Google Scholar
  7. F. Geller-Grimm 1999. Raubfliegen-Typenmaterial des Senckenberg-Museums in Frankfurt am Main, das überwiegend von Wiedemann und Jaennicke bearbeitet wurde (Insecta, Diptera, Asilidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 78 (1/2): 205–217. Google Scholar
  8. F. Geller-Grimm 2002. Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen. Fauna of Arabia 19: 467–489. Google Scholar
  9. F. Hermann 1906. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Asiliden (II.) (Dipt.). Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 6: 129–144. Google Scholar
  10. F. Hermann 1920. Beitrag zur allgemeinen Systematik der Asiliden. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik 43: 161–194. Google Scholar
  11. F.M. Hull 1962. Robber flies of the World. The genera of the family Asilidae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 224 (1): 1–430, (2): 431–907. Google Scholar
  12. C. Kertész 1909. Catalogus dipterorum hucusque descriptorum. IV. Oncodidae, Nemestrinidae, Mydaidae, Apioceridae, Asilidae. Budapest: Museum Nationale Hungaricum, pp. 1–348. Google Scholar
  13. P. A. Lehr 1988. Family Asilidae. In : A. Soos & L. Papp , eds, Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 5. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 197–326. Google Scholar
  14. H. Loew 1858 [1857]. Bidrag till kannedomen om Afrikas Diptera [part]. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar (Stockholm) 14: 337–383. Google Scholar
  15. H. Loew 1860. Die Dipteren-Fauna Südafrika's. Erste Abtheilung. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Sachsen und Thüringen in Halle 2 (1858–1861): 57–402. Google Scholar
  16. J.G.H. Londt 1994. Afrotropical Asilidae (Diptera) 26. Ethological observations, and a possible ecological classification based on habitats. Annals of the Natal Museum 35: 97–122. Google Scholar
  17. J.G.H. Londt 2004. A revision of Laphystotes Oldroyd, with the description of a new species, and a key to the genera of afrotropical Laphriinae (Diptera: Asilidae). African Entomology 12 (1): 19–28. Google Scholar
  18. J.G.H. Londt 2006. Predation by Afrotropical Asilidae (Diptera): An analysis of 2000 prey records. African Entomology 14 (2): 317–328. Google Scholar
  19. J.G.H. Londt 2007a. A review of Afrotropical Perasis (Hermann, 1905) (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae). Zootaxa 1521: 9–18. Google Scholar
  20. J.G.H. Londt 2007b. A review of the genus Hoplistomerus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae). African Invertebrates 48 (2): 167–198. Google Scholar
  21. P.J.M. Macquart 1838. Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Mémoires de la Société (Royale) des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts à Lille 1 (2): 5–207. Google Scholar
  22. J. F. McAlpine 1981. Morphology and terminology—Adults. In : J.F. McAlpine et. al., eds, Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Monograph 27. Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, pp. 9–63. Google Scholar
  23. H. Oldroyd 1970. Studies of African Asilidae (Diptera). 1. Asilidae of the Congo basin. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, Supplement 24 (7): 207–334. Google Scholar
  24. H. Oldroyd 1974. An introduction to the robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of southern Africa. Annals of the Natal Museum 22 (1): 1–171. Google Scholar
  25. H. Oldroyd 1980. Family Asilidae. In : R.W. Crosskey , ed., Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. London: British Museum (Natural History), pp. 334–373, 1218, 1226, 1229. Google Scholar
  26. G. Ricardo 1903. Insecta: Diptera. In : H.O. Forbes , ed., The natural history of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri, etc. Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum (Special): 357–378. Google Scholar
  27. O. Theodor 1980. Diptera: Asilidae. Fauna Palaestina, Insecta II. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Google Scholar
  28. C.R.W. Wiedemann 1828. Aussereuropaische zweiflügelige Insekten als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werkes v. 1. Pt 8. Familie: Räuberfliegen (Asilici). Hamburg: Schulzischen Buchhandlung, 1828–1830. Google Scholar
  29. F.M. Van Der. Wulp 1899. Asilidae from Aden and its neighbourhood. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1899: 81–98. Google Scholar
and Jason G. H. Londt "A Review of Afrotropical Trichardis Hermann, 1906, and the Description of the First Oriental Representative of the Genus (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae)," African Invertebrates 49(2), (1 December 2008). https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.049.0210
JOURNAL ARTICLE
56 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top