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1 December 2012 A Catalogue of Dryinidae of Mozambique, with Description of a New Species(Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)
Massimo Olmi, Adalgisa Guglielmino, Sultan Adamo Natha, Alberto Albino Nota Alfredo
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Anew species of Dryinidae, Gonatopus chiruanus, is described from Mozambique, Niassa Province, Mecanhelas District, Entre-Lagos. The male of Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit, 1954) is described for the first time. An updated checklist of Dryinidae of Mozambique is presented. With the above new records, 45 species of Dryinidae are now known from Mozambique. New records from other countries are also provided.

INTRODUCTION

The Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) are parasitoids of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) (Guglielmino & Bückle 2003, 2010; Guglielmino et al. 2006; Guglielmino & Olmi 1997, 2006, 2007; Guglielmino & Virla 1998). In the monograph of world Dryinidae (Olmi 1984), no species were listed for Mozambique. Dryinidae were first collected in Mozambique in 1985 by the first author. He found Gonatopus okahandjae Olmi, 1984 and Echthrodelphax afer Olmi, 1984 on the campus of the Faculty of Agriculture, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, and described for the first time the male of both species (Olmi 1987a). The third record from Mozambique was that of Anteon kawandanum Olmi, 1984, collected in Maputo by the same author (Olmi 1990). In more recent years, Olmi (1994a, 1998, 2004) has published three contributions on the knowledge of Dryinidae of Mozambique, with many new records as well as descriptions of the following new species: Gonatopus festivus Olmi, 1994; Gonatopus amoenus Olmi, 1994; Gonatopus mossambicus Olmi, 1998; Gonatopus faustae Olmi, 1998; Gonatopus maputensis Olmi, 1998 (= Paradicondylus australis Olmi, 1994); Gonatopus gazensis Olmi, 1998; Gonatopus cuambensis Olmi, 2004; Gonatopus macua Olmi, 2004; Gonatopus niassensis Olmi, 2004; and Dryinus zambeziacus Olmi, 2004. Lastly, in a recent paper, Olmi (2007) described a new subfamily of Dryinidae, namely Apoaphelopinae, with two species, Apoaphelopus mostovskii Olmi, 2007 from South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, and A. niassensis Olmi, 2007 from Mozambique, Niassa Province.

In 2011, the study of new material collected by the authors resulted in the discovery of an additional new species (described herein) and the male of a species previously known only from females. These records provided the opportunity to compose a checklist of dryinids known from Mozambique.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Species descriptions follow the terminology used by Olmi (1984, 1994b, 1999). The measurements reported are relative, except for the total length (head to abdominal tip, without the antennae), which is expressed in millimetres.

In the descriptions, POL is the distance between the inner edges of the two lateral ocelli; OL — between the inner edges of a lateral ocellus and the median ocellus; OOL is the distance from the outer edge of a lateral ocellus to the compound eye; OPL — from the posterior edge of a lateral ocellus to the occipital carina; and TL — from the posterior edge of the eye to the occipital carina.

Most of the material that is the subject of the present paper was reared. The authors have adopted the following rearing abbreviations: C — date of collection of parasitized host, B — date of dryinid cocooning, E — date of dryinid adult emergence.

The material referred to in this paper is in the following collections:

Glossary

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA;

BMNH

The Natural History Museum, London, UK;

CASC

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California;

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada;

DEUW

Department of Entomology, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands;

DJBC

Denis J. Brothers' Collection, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa;

FAG

Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de l'État, Gembloux, Belgium;

INIA

Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronómica, Maputo, Mozambique;

KJHC

Karl-Johan Hedqvist's collection, Stockholm, Sweden;

MNHN

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France;

MRAC

Musée Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium;

NNIC

Namibian National Insect Collection, Windhoek, Namibia;

OLM

Department of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy (Massimo Olmi's collection);

OOLM

Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum, Linz, Austria

;

SAMC

Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa;

USNM

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA;

ZIL

Zoological Institute, Lund, Sweden.

TAXONOMY

Family Dryinidae Haliday, 1833
Subfamily Gonatopodinae Kieffer, 1906
Genus Gonatopus Ljungh, 1810
Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit, 1954)
Fig. 1

  • Neogonatopus bekilyanus: Benoit 1954: 394.

  • Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit): Olmi 1984: 1612.

  • Gonatopus bekilyanus was known only on the basis of female specimens collected in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and South Africa (Benoit 1954; Olmi 1984,2004; Olmi & Copeland 2011). In 2011, both sexes of this species were reared in Mozambique, Niassa Province, Cuamba, from an unidentified species of Cicadellidae. This rearing resulted in the discovery of the previously unknown male, described herein.

  • Description:

  • Male.

  • Fully winged; length 1.6 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs brown, except articulations and tarsal segments 1–4 testaceous. Antenna hairy, filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 4:3:4.5:4:3.5:4:3.5:4:3:6; antennal segment 3 less than 3 times as long as broad: 4.5:2. Head dull, granulated; frontal line absent; occipital carina absent; POL = 5 ; OL = 3 ; OOL= 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than OL (2:3). Vertex of head with two oval, dull, granulated areas situated between posterior ocelli and eyes and surrounded anteriorly by very high carina, posteriorly not surrounded by carina. Temple distinct, granulated, not crossed by carina. Palpal formula 4/2. Scutum dull, granulated. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli slightly shorter than greatest width of posterior ocelli (1.5:2). Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, weakly punctate, without sculpture among punctae. Propodeum dull, weakly reticulate rugose, with small areolae; dorsal surface without median longitudinal furrow; posterior surface without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands, and with only costal cell surrounded by strongly pigmented veins; marginal cell open; stigmal vein regularly curved, with distal part longer than proximal part. Dorsal process of paramere (Fig. 1) short and slender, with distal apex pointed. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Material examined: KENYA: Central Province: Mt Kenya, 1♀ (DEUW). MADAGASCAR: Toamasina: Tamatave, 1♀ (FAG); Rogez, 2♀ (MRAC, OLM). Toliary: Bekily, iii.1943, A. Seyrig, ♀holotype (MNHN); same locality label, vii.1937, A. Seyrig, 4♀ paratypes (2 in MNHN; 2 in MRAC); Ifaty, 23°09′S 43°37′E, 17.ix.1993, under seaweed drift on sand beach, W.E. Steiner & R. Andriamasimanana, 1♀ (USNM). MOZAMBIQUE: Niassa: Cuamba, Mozambique Catholic University Campus, M. Olmi reared, 1 ♀ : C. 19.iv.2002,B.21.iv.2002,E. 12.V.2002; same locality label, 1♀: C. 22.iii.2003, B.23.iii.2003, E. 14.iv.2003 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 23.iii.2003, B. 27.iii.2003, E. 18.iv.2003 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 29.V.2007, B. 30.V.2007, E. 30.vi.2007 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 29.V.2007, B. 31.V.2007, E. l.vii.2007 (SAMC); same locality label, 1♀: C. 19.iv.2007, B. 20.iv.2007, E. 14.V.2007 (SAMC); same locality label, 1♀: egg 27.v.2007, first instar larva 31 .v.2007, second instar larva 1.vi.2007, third instar larva 3.vi.2007, fourth instar larva 5.vi.2007, fifth instar larva 6.vi.2007, B. 7.vi.2007, E. 30.vi.2007 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 3.ii.2011, B. 4.ii.2011, E. 23.ii.2011 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 6.ii.2011, B. 8.ii.2011, E. 27.ii.2011 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 3.ii.2011, B. 4.ii.2011, E. 23.ii.2011 (OLM); same locality label, 1(♂: C. 6.ii.2011, B. 7.ii.2011, E. 1.iii.2011 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 6.ii.2011. B. 10.ii.2011, E. 1.iii.2011 (OLM); same locality label, 1♀: C. 1.iv.2009, B. 7.iv.2009 (OLM). SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng: nr Pretoria, Discovery, 28.ix.1961, Empey, 1♀ (DJBC).

  • Hosts: In Niassa, adults and nymphs of Exitianus capicola (Stål) and Exitianus taeniaticeps (Kirschbaum) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

  • Comments: Because of the complete notauli, the antennal segment 3 that is less than 3 times as long as broad, and the area between posterior ocelli and eyes having an ovoidal area anteriorly delimited by a strong and high carina, the male of G bekilyanus is similar to those of G. cornutus (Benoit 1951b) and G. ridens Olmi, 1984. For the main differences between the above species see the comments on the following species, G. chiruanus sp. n.

  • Figs 1, 2.

    Male genital armatures of (1) Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit) from Cuamba and (2) paratype of Gonatopus chiruanus sp. n. Left half removed. Scale bar = 0.04 mm for both figures.

    f01_715.jpg

    Gonatopus chiruanus sp. n. Figs 2, 3

  • Etymology: This species is named after Chirua Lake, on the banks of which it was collected.

  • Description:

  • Male.

  • Fully winged; length 1.9 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma, metasoma and legs black. Antenna hairy, filiform; antennal segments in the following proportions: 4:4:5:5:5:5:5:4:4:7; antennal segment 3 less than 3 times as long as broad (5:2). Head dull, hairy, granulated; frontal line complete; occipital carina absent; POL = 4; OL = 2; OOL = 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli about as long as OL. Vertex of head with two oval, smooth, granulated areas situated between posterior ocelli and compound eyes and surrounded anteriorly by very high carina and posteriorly by lower carina not continuing on temples and behind ocellar triangle. Temple distinct, granulated, not crossed by carina. Palpal formula: 4/2. Scutum dull, granulated. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli about half as long as greatest width of posterior ocelli. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, punctate, without sculpture among punctae. Propodeum dull, weakly reticulate rugose, with small areolae; dorsal surface with median longitudinal furrow; posterior surface without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands, and with only costal cell surrounded by strongly pigmented veins; marginal cell open; stigmal vein regularly curved, with distal part longer than proximal part. Dorsal process of paramere absent; paramere with an inner membranous band along the entire length (Fig. 2). Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female.

  • Apterous; length 3.1–3.9 mm (holotype 3.4 mm). Head black, except mandible, clypeus, anterior region of face (more along orbits) and part of ventral side testaceous; antenna brown, except segment 1 testaceous; prothorax black, except posterior margin of pronotum testaceous; scutum dark testaceous, except anterior and posterior margin black; rest of mesosoma black; metasoma brown; foreleg brown, except tarsus testaceous; mid- and hindleg brown, except tarsal segments 1–4 testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions :8:6:16:15:14:12:10:9:7:8. Head excavated, dull, granulated; frontal line incomplete, absent on anterior third of face; occipital carina absent; temple prominent, granulated and crossed by longitudinal keel; POL = 1; OL = 1; OOL = 7; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli about as long as POL. Palpal formula: 4/2. Pronotum crossed by strong transverse impression, granulated. Scutum very long, about 4 times as long as broad, dull, granulated. Scutellum hardly visible, dull, granulated. Stalk between pronotum and metanotum composed of scutum + scutellum, more than 4 times as long as broad (19:4). Metanotum very long, granulated, not transversely striate, not hollow behind scutellum. Metathorax + propodeum dull, completely granulated, with posterior surface not transversely striate. Mesopleura and metapleura granulated, not transversely striate. Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete. Protarsal segments in the following proportions: 13:2.5:4:14:21. Enlarged claw (Fig. 3) with small subapical tooth and one row of five peg-like hairs + one normal hair. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 3) with one row of 10–14 lamellae (10 in holotype); distal apex with about 10 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/0/1.

  • Holotype: ♀ “MOZAMBIQUE: Niassa: Mecanhelas District, Entre-Lagos, Lake Chirua bank in front of Railway Station, 14°58′S 35°53′E, C. 6.iii.2011, B. 9.iii.2011, E. 22.iv.2011, reared from a nymph of Nicolais attenuatus Stiller, M. Olmi and A. Nota” [in red] “Gonatopus chiruanus sp. n. M. Olmi det. 2011 ♀”(OLM).

  • Paratypes: same data as holotype: 1♀,C. 13.iii.2011, B. 15.iii.2011, E. 12.V.2011 (OLM); 1♀,C. 13.iii.2011, B. 14.iii.2011, E. 14.V.2011 (OLM); 1♀,C. 13.iii.2011,B. 15.iii.2011,E. 15.V.2011 (OLM); 1♀,C. 13.iii.2011, B. 16.iii.2011, E. 15.V.2011 (OLM); 1♀, C. 13.iii.2011, B. 14.iii.2011, E. 14.V.2011 (OLM).

  • Hosts: Nicolaus attenuatus Stiller (Cicadellidae).

  • Comments: Because of the strong pronotal transverse furrow, the palpal formula 4/2 and the small subapical tooth of the enlarged claw, the female of G. chiruanus belongs to the Gonatopus incognitus group (Olmi 2007). The female of G. chiruanus is characterized by the long and slender stalk between pronotum and metathorax + propodeum and by the temple being crossed by a sharp carina. For this reason, it is very similar to G. leptothorax Ceballos, 1936, and G.fortis Olmi, 2007. The holotype of the new species was compared with the holotypes of G. leptothorax from Madagascar, Bekily (deposited in MNHN) and G. fortis from Namibia, 51 km S Grünau (deposited in NNIC). Following the description of G. chiruanus, the key to the females of the Afrotropical Gonatopus of incognitus group published by Olmi (1984, 2007) can be modified by replacing couplet 18 as follows:

  • Fig. 3.

    Chela of holotype of Gonatopus chiruanus sp. n. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.

    f03_715.jpg

    18 Temple with a strong, sharp carina (Olmi 2007: fig. 26) 18′

    — Temple without a sharp carina 19

    18′ Posterior surface of propodeum granulated, not transversely striate; scutum very long, about 4 times as long as broad chiruanus sp. n.

    — Posterior surface of propodeum transversely striate; scutum shorter, about 2–3 times as long as broad 18″

    18″ Scutum very long, approximately 2.5–3.0 times as long as broad; temple rugose leptothorax Ceballos

    — Scutum shorter, about twice as long as broad; temple smooth fortis Olmi

    Because of the complete notauli, the antennal segment 3 less than 3 times as long as broad, and the area between posterior ocelli and eyes having an ovoidal area anteriorly delimited by a strong and high carina, the males of G. chiruanus and bekilyanus are very similar to those of G cornutus (Benoit, 1951) and G. ridens Olmi, 1984. The main differences between these four species can be summarized as follows:

    1 Dorsal process of paramere absent; paramere with an inner membranous band along the entire length (Fig. 2) chiruanus sp. n.

    — Dorsal process of paramere (Olmi 2004: fig. 7; 2007: fig. 25; Fig. 1) short and slender, with distal apex pointed 2

    2 Notauli posteriorly joint, or separated, but very close, with minimum distance between notauli shorter than half of posterior ocellus breadth; head and scutum dull, granulated ridens Olmi

    — Notauli posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli longer than half of posterior ocellus breadth; head and scutum dull and granulated, or shiny, punctate, without sculpture among punctae 3

    3 Head punctate, without sculpture among punctae, with a shiny, unsculptured, ovoidal area between posterior ocelli and eyes, surrounded posteriorly by a lower carina continuing on the temples and behind the ocellar triangle (Olmi 2007: fig. 24); scutum shiny, strongly punctate, without sculpture among punctae cornutus (Benoit)

    — Head granulated, with a dull, granulated, ovoidal area between posterior ocelli and eyes, not surrounded posteriorly by a lower carina continuing on the temples and behind the ocellar triangle; scutum dull, granulated bekilyanus (Benoit)

    CHECKLIST OF DRYINIDAE OF MOZAMBIQUE

    An asterisk indicates that specimens are known only from Mozambique. Provinces are in italics.
    Subfamily Aphelopinae Perkins, 1912

    • Genus Aphelopus Dalman, 1823: 8

    • Type species: Dryinus atratus Dalman, 1823, by subsequent designation (Westwood 1840).

    • Aphelopus mediocarinatus (Benoit, 1951b: 23)

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 4.iii.2005, B. 9.iii.2005, E. 5.iV.2005, M. Olmi, 9♀ and 2♂ (OLM), 2♀ (SAMC).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Molopopterus alfa Dworakowska and Empoascanara ethiopica Dworakowska (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from many Afrotropical countries (Olmi & van Harten 2006), including Madagascar (Olmi 1984), in addition to Yemen (Olmi & van Harten 2006).

    • Aphelopus wittei Benoit, 1951b: 16

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 18.ii.2005, B. 20.ii.2005, E. 8.iii.2005, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); 17.iv–2.vi.2006, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    • Recorded from many Afrotropical countries (Olmi & van Harten 2000), including Madagascar (Olmi 1984), in addition to Yemen (Olmi & van Harten 2000).

    Subfamily Apoaphelopinae Olmi, 2007

    • Genus Apoaphelopus Olmi, 2007: 228

    • Type species: Apoaphelopus mostovskii Olmi, 2007, by original designation.

    • Apoaphelopus niassensis Olmi, 2007: 230*

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, 7.iv–2.vi.2006, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, immature ♂ holotype (OLM); same data as holotype, 4–18.ix.2007, 1 mature ♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    Subfamily Anteoninae Perkins, 1912

    • Genus Anteon Jurine, 1807: 302

    • Type species: Anteon jurineanum Latreille, 1809, by monotypy.

    • Anteon afrum Olmi, 1984: 375

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo (AMNH); 3 km N Umbelúzi (AMNH); 5 km E Manhiça (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Nephotettix afer Ghauri and Nephotettix modulatus Melichar (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    • Recorded from Congo (Olmi 1994a), Namibia (Olmi 1984) and South Africa (new record: KwaZulu-Natal:

    • Eshowe, 1–3.V.1926, R.E. Turner, 1♀ (BMNH)).

    Anteon brachypterum Olmi, 1984: 353

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C.21.iii.2008, B.22.iii.2008, E. 2009, M. Olmi, reared from a nymph of an unknown species of Cicadellidae showing two cysts, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Eritrea (Olmi 1984).

    • Anteon kawandanum Olmi, 1984: 374

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo (AMNH, CNC). Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, 1999 (OLM). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 23.iii.2003, B. 24.iii.2003, E., ♀9.iv.2003, ♂ 11.iv.2003, M. Olmi reared from a nymph of an unknown species of Cicadellidae that had two cysts (OLM); Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, 17.iv–2.vi.2006, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM); Cuamba, Camboja, 28.iii–.iv.2009, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♀(OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from many Afrotropical countries, including Madagascar (Olmi 2004), in addition to Yemen (Olmi & van Harten 2006).

    • Anteon tetense

    • Olmi, 2008b: 217*

    • Distribution: Tete: 20 km N Tete, 16°02′S 33°35′E, 260 m, 1 .xii.2005, J. Halada, ♀holotype (OOLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    • Anteon traorei Olmi, 1995: 133

    • Distribution: Maputo: 5 km E Manhiça (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    • Recorded from Burkina Faso (Olmi 1995) and South Africa (Olmi 2009).

    Subfamily Bocchinae Richards, 1939

    • Genus Bocchus Ashmead, 1893: 91

    • Type species: Bocchus flavicollis Ashmead, 1893, by original designation.

    • Bocchus watshami Olmi, 1987b: 45

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, 17.iv–2.vi.2006, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    • Recorded from Namibia (Olmi 1987b), South Africa (Olmi 2006), Botswana (new record: Serowe, Farmer's Brigade, 1♂ (AMNH)) and Guinea Bissau (new record: Cacheu Region, 2 km E Bigene, 1.xi.1992, 2♂ (AMNH, ZIL)).

    Subfamily Dryininae Haliday, 1833

    • Genus Dryinus Latreille, 1804: 176

    • Type species: Dryinus formicarius Latreille, 1804, by subsequent monotypy (Latreille 1805).

    • Dryinus bisulcatus (Benoit) group

    • Dryinus orophilus (Benoit, 1950: 226)

    • Distribution: Gaza: Praia do Bilene, Airport, M. Olmi (AMNH). Maputo: Maputo, Costa do Sol, M. Olmi (AMNH); 9 km N Ponta de Ouro, M. Olmi (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 4.iii.2005, B. 9.iii.2005, E. 26.iii.2005, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); Cuamba, Mituque, 6–22. v.2008, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Paroxychara cowla Medler (Flatidae) and Elasmoscelis cimicoides Spinola (Lophopidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006); unidentified Dictyopharidae (new record).

    • Recorded from Yemen and many Afrotropical countries (Olmi & van Harten 2006), in addition to Oman (Olmi & Copeland 2011: Dhofar, Ain Razat, 17°07.75′N 54°14.24′E, 110 m, 6.X.2001, yellow pan trap, F. Strumia, 1♀ (OLM)). Not collected in Madagascar.

    • Dryinus spangleri Olmi, 1984: 762

    • Distribution: Nampida: Nampula, neighbourhood of Bishop Catholic Seminary, C. 21.xi. 1999, B. 26.xi.1999, E. 22.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Paranotus rufilineus (Walker) (Flatidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe (Olmi & Copeland 2011).

    • Dryinus undulatus (Benoit, 1950: 226)

    • Distribution: Niassa: approximately 8 km N Maúa, Coração Sagrado de Jesús de Maúa Mission, C. 11 .xi.1999, B. 12.xi.1999, E. 1.xii.1999, M Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Elasmoscelis cimicoides Spinola (Lophopidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from Burundi, Congo, Kenya and Uganda (Olmi & Copeland 2011).

    • Dryinus zambeziacus Olmi, 2004: 357*

    • Distribution: Zambezia: Gurué, 580 m, C. 20.xi.2002, B. 26.xi.2002, E. 16.xii.2002, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 19.xi.2002, B. 24.xi.2002, E. 15.xii.2002, 1♂ paratype (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Philotheria talassio Fennah (Dictyopharidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    Subfamily Gonatopodinae Kieffer, 1906

    • Genus Echthrodelphax Perkins, 1903: 36

    • Type species: Echthrodelphax fairchildii Perkins, 1903, by monotypy.

    • Echthrodelphax migratorius Benoit, 1954: 397

    • Distribution: Gaza: between Macia and Palmeira, 2 km E Incomati River Bridge along Road EN1 (AMNH). MaputMNo: 3 km N Umbelúzi (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 7.iv.2003, B. 9.iv.2003, E. 24.iv.2003, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM); Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, 17.iv–2.vi.2006, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Sogatella petax Fennah (Delphacidae: Delphacinae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    • Recorded from many Afrotropical countries, including Madagascar (Olmi 1994a), in addition to Egypt (Hendawy 2001) and Oman (new record: Muscat, 5.iv.l985 (ZIL)).

    • Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko, 1970: 432

    • Pterogonatopus hortusensis Abdul-Nour, 1976: 276.

    • Echthrodelphax afer Olmi, 1984: 1155.

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo, Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Agriculture, experimental fields (AMNH); 26 km S Maputo, Umbelúzi (AMNH); 3 km N Umbelúzi along Maputo—Namaacha road (AMNH); Pontade Ouro (AMNH); 6 km N Palmeira along Maputo—Xai Xai road (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Mituque, 22.vii–5.viii.2008, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, 12.iv–6.v.2008, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, 12.iv–6.v.2008, Malaise trap, M. Olmi, 2♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Nycheuma endymion (Fennah), Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), Toya propinqua (Fieber) (Delphacidae: Delphacinae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    • Recorded from many Palaearctic (Olmi 1999, 2008a) and Afrotropical countries (Olmi 1994a), including Madagascar (new record: Toliary, Mite Forest, 20.7 km 29° WNW Tongobory, 23°31.27′S 44°07.17′E, 75 m, 27.ii–3.iii.2002, Malaise trap, in gallery forest, Fisher, Griswold and others, 1♂ (CASC)).

    • Genus Gonatopus Ljungh, 1810: 161

    • Type species: Gonatopus formicarius Ljungh, 1810, by monotypy.

    • Gonatopus nearcticus (Fenton) group

    • Gonatopus nearcticus (Fenton, 1927: 6)

    • Platygonatopus ugandanus Benoit, 1951a: 300.

    • Acrodontochelys ugandanus (Benoit): Olmi, 1984: 1174.

    • Distribution: Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, 24.xi.1999, M. Olmi (OLM). Niassa:

    • Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, 26.V.2007, M. Olmi, 2♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from many countries of Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Nearctic regions (Olmi 1999; Olmi & Copeland 2011). Not collected in Madagascar.

    • Gonatopus pilosoides Olmi group

    • Gonatopus acutus (Olmi, 1984: 1230)

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Camboja, C. 15.xi.1999, B. 18.xi.1999, E. 12.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀, 2♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Caliscelis (Caliscelidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006). Recorded from Benin, Gabon and South Africa (Olmi 2004, 2006).

    • Gonatopus amoenus Olmi, 1994a: 72

    • Distribution: Gaza: Between Macia and Palmeira, 2 km E Incomati River bridge along Road EN1 (AMNH). Maputo: 27 km S Maputo, Umbelúzi, farm of Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronómica (INIA), 20.X.1992, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (AMNH); same data as holotype, x–xi.1992, M. Olmi, 25 paratypes (12♀, 13♂) (AMNH); 3 km N Umbelúzi (23 km S Maputo), fields on a private farm, C. 11 .xi. 1992, B. 12.xi.1992, E. 26.xi.1992 and 28.xi. 1992,2♂ paratypes, M. Olmi (AMNH); 2 km S Umbelúzi, SEMOC farm (AMNH); 6 km N Palmeira along road EN1 (AMNH); Maputo, Costa do Sol, Municipal Nursery, 25.ix.1992, 1♀ paratype, C. 31.X.1992, B. 2.xi.l992, E. 15.xi.1992, M. Olmi, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); 5 km E Manhiça (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 4.iV.2003, B. 7.1V.2003, E. 24.iv.2003, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 7.iv.2003, B. 11.iv.2003, E. 25.iv.2003, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 7.iV.2003, B. 10.iv.2003, E. 25.iv.2003, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 6.iii.2005, B. 8.iii.2005, E. 22.iii.2005, 1♂ (OLM); Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 18.ii.2005, B. 20.ii.2005, E. 8.iii.2005, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Sogatella kolophon (Kirkaldy), Sogatella petax Fennah and Toya propinqua (Fieber) (Delphacidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997); unidentified species of Meenoplidae (new record). Recorded from Burkina Faso and South Africa (Olmi 1998, 2006).

    • Gonatopus festivus Olmi, 1994a: 70

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo, Costa do Sol, Municipal Agricultural Nursery, C. 11.x. 1992, B. 12.x.1992, E. 29.x.1992, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 11.x. 1992, B. 12.x. 1992, E. 30.x.1992, 1♀ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 11.x. 1992, E. 5.xi.1992, 1♀ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 11.x. 1992, E. 30.x.1992, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 6.x.1992, E. 25.x.1992, 1♂ paratype (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Nisia nervosa (Motschulsky) (Meenoplidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997). Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2009).

    • Gonatopus niassensis Olmi, 2004: 360*

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 23.iii.2003, B. 25.iii.2003, E. 14.iv.2003, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 21.iii. 2003, B. 22.iii.2003, E. 11.iv.2003, M. Olmi, 1♂ paratype (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Delphacidae.

    • Gonatopus similis Brues, 1906: 107

    • Distribution: Gaza: 2 km E Incomati River bridge, along road EN1 between Macia and Palmeira (AMNH).

    • Maputo: 6 km N Palmeira, along road EN1 between Maputo and Macia (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Delphacidae.

    • Recorded from Gambia, Kenya, La Réunion, Lesotho, Mauritius and South Africa (Olmi 1998; Olmi & Copeland 2011).

    • Gonatopus ochreus (Olmi) group

    • Gonatopus afer (Olmi, 1984: 1458)

    • Distribution: Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, C. 22.xi.1999, B. 25.xi.1999, E. 23.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Exitianus frontalis (Distant) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from Congo (Olmi 2004), Madagascar (Olmi 1994c), Ethiopia (Ponomarenko & Olmi 2006), South Africa (new records: Free State: Royal Natal National Park, 11 km E of park gate along road from R74 to park, grass along the road, C. 9.iv.2007, B. 11.iv.2007, E. 8.v.2007, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM). Western Cape: Cederberg Mts, Algeria, 6.ii.2006, M. Olmi reared ex Cicadulina theroni Van Rensburg, 2♀ (OLM, SAMC), 1♂ (SAMC)) and Tanzania (new records: Mkomazi Game Reserve, Kisima Plot, 4°06.06′S 38°05.58′E, 25.xi–8.xii.1995, Malaise trap, Acacia/Commiphora bushland, S. van Noort, 1♂ (SAMC); Mkomazi Game Reserve, Kavateta Dam, 3°54.90′S 38°02.55′E, 16.iv.1996, sweep, grasses and shrubs in Acacia/Commiphora bushland, S. van Noort, 1♀ (SAMC)).

    • Gonatopus mossambicus Olmi, 1998: 63*

    • Distribution: Maputo: 3 km N Umbelúzi, along Maputo—Boane road, C. 29.xi.1993, B. 1.xii. 1993, E. 18.xii.1993, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (AMNH); same data as holotype, 28♀ paratypes (AMNH, USNM); near Magude, Chobela, C. 29.x.1993, B. 2.xi.1993, E. 24.xi.1993, M. Olmi, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 29.x.1993, B. 2.xi.1993, E. 24.xi.1993, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 29.x.1993, B. 1.xi.1993, E. 22.xi.1993, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 29.x.1993, B. 31.x. 1993, E. 22.xi.1993, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 29.X.1993, B. 4.xi.1993, E. 26.xi.1993, 1♀ (AMNH); Maputo, Costa do Sol, Maputo Racecourse (AMNH); 6 km E Manhiça (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, C. 15.xi.1999, B. 18.xi.1999, E. 5.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 4.iv.2003, B. 8.iv.2003, E. 2.v.2003, 1♀ (OLM). Hosts in Mozambique: Doratulina instabilis (Ribaut) and Stirellus flavovirescens (Stål) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus ochreus (Olmi, 1984: 1450)

    • Distribution: Maputo: 26 km S Maputo, Umbelúzi (AMNH); 22 km N Maputo (AMNH); 6 km N Palmeira(AMNH). Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, 21.xi.1999, sweeping, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 21.xi.1999, B. 24.xi.1999, E. 16.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM). Niassa: 8 km N Maúa, Catholic Mission of “Coração Sagrado de Jesus de Maúa”, M. Olmi (OLM); Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, 10.iv.2002, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, 26.v.2007, sweeping, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 29.v.2007, B. 31.v.2007, E. 22.vi.2007, 1♀ (SAMC); same locality label, C. 29.v.2007, B. 1 .vi.2007, E. 1.vii.2007, 1♀ (OLM); near Cuamba, near the bridge at the beginning of the Maúa Road, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 9.xi.1999, E. 1.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀(OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Aconurella shaba Ghauri and Exitianus capicola (Stål) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from Cameroon, Namibia and South Africa (Olmi 2004).

    • Gonatopus rubripes (Olmi, 1984: 1454)

    • Distribution: Maputo: along Macia—Praia do Bilene road, 23.6 km S Macia, 4.x. 1996, sweeping, M. Olmi, 5♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x. 1996, B. 6.x. 1996, E. 3xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x. 1996, B. 7.x. 1996, E. 3.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x. 1996, B. 6.x. 1996, E. 4.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x. 1996, B. 5.x. 1996, E. 4.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x.1996, B. 8.x.1996, E. 5.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 4.x.1996, B. 8.x.1996, E. 4.xi.1996, 1♀ (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus varipes Brues, 1906: 106

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo Bay, Inhaca Island (AMNH); 22 km N Maputo (AMNH); 6 km N Palmeira along the Maputo—Xai Xai road (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, 10.iv.2002, M. Olmi (OLM); Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, 18.ii.2005, M. Olmi (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Botswana, Gambia, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Olmi 1994a, 2004).

    • Gonatopus vulgaris Olmi, 2000b: 72

    • Tetrodontochelys obscurus Olmi, 1984: 1452.

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 30.iii.2003, B. 1.iv.2003, E. 20.iv.2003, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Madagascar (Olmi 1994c) and South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus incognitus Olmi group

    • Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit, 1954: 394)

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, M. Olmi, C. 19.iv.2002, B. 21.iv.2002, E. 12.v.2002, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 19.iv.2002, B. 21.iv.2002, E. 12.v.2002, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 22.iii.2003, B. 23.iii.2003, E. 14.iv.2003, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 23.iii.2003, B. 27.iii.2003, E. 18.iv.2003, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 29.v.2007, B. 30.v.2007, E. 30.vi.2007, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 29.v.2007, B. 31.v.2007, E. 1.vii.2007, 1♀ (SAMC); same locality label, C. 19.iv.2007, B. 20.iv.2007, E. 14.v.2007, 1♀ (SAMC); same locality label, 1♀: egg 27.v.2007, first instar larva 31.v.2007, second instar larva 1.vi.2007, third instar larva 3.vi.2007, fourth instar larva 5.vi.2007, fifth instar larva 6.vi.2007, B. 7.vi.2007, E. 30.vi.2007 (OLM); same locality label, C. 3.ii.2011, B. 4.ii.2011, E. 23.ii.2011, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 6.ii.2011, B. 8.ii.2011, E. 27.ii.2011, 1♀(OLM); same locality label, C. 3.ii.2011, B. 4.ii.2011, E. 23.ii.2011, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 6.ii.2011, B. 7.ii.2011, E. 1.iii.2011, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 6.ii.2011, B. 10.ii.2011, E. 1.iii.2011, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 1.iv.2009, B. 7.iv.2009, E. 1.v.2009, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Exitianus capicola (Stål) and Exitianus taeniaticeps (Kirschbaum) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006). Recorded from Madagascar, Kenya and South Africa (Olmi 2004; Olmi & Copeland 2011).

    • Gonatopus capensis Brues, 1906: 105

    • Distribution: Gaza: Praia do Bilene, Airport, M. Olmi (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Hecalus dubius Melichar (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006).

    • Recorded from Gambia and South Africa (Olmi 1998).

    • Gonatopus chiruanus sp. n*

    • Distribution: Niassa: Mecanhelas District, Entre-Lagos, Lake Chirua bank in front of Railway Station, C. 6.iii.2011, B. 9.iii.2011, E. 22.iv.2011, M. Olmi & A. Nota, ♀ holotype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 13.iii.2011, B. 15.iii.2011, E. 12.v.2011, 1♀ paratype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 13.iii.2011, B. 14.iii.2011, E. 14.v.2011, 1♀ paratype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 13.iii.2011, B. 15.iii.2011, E. 15.v.2011, 1♀ paratype (OLM); same data as holotype, C.13.iii.2011 13.iii.2011, B. 16.iii.2011, E. 1.v.2011, 1♀ paratype (OLM); same data as holotype, C. 13.iii.2011, B. 14.iii.2011, E. 14.v.2011, 1♂ paratype (OLM). Hosts in Mozambique: Nicolaus attenuatus Stiller (Cicadellidae).

    • Gonatopus communis Olmi, 1984: 1610

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo (AMNH); 3 km N Umbelúzi (AMNH); 6 km N Palmeira, C. 30.xi. 1995, B. 5.xii.1995, E.21.xii.1995, F. Finocchi, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.ix.1996, B. 14.ix.1996, E. 10.xi.1996, M. Olmi, 1♂ (AMNH); 2 km E Incomati River bridge, along EN1 (AMNH). Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, C. 21 .xi. 1999, B. 24.xi.1999, E. 16.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 21.xi.1999, B. 23.xi.1999, E. 10.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 21.xi.1999, B. 21.xi.1999, E. 24.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM). Zambézia: Gurué, C. 19.ii.2011, B. 21.ii.2011, E. 10.iii.2011, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Balclutha saltuella (Kirschbaum) (Cicadellidae).

    • Recorded from Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa and Tanzania (Olmi 2004).

    • Gonatopus cuambensis Olmi, 2004: 358

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 26.iv.2002, B. 30.iv.2002, E. 15.v.2002, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Hecalus virescens (Distant) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006). Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus ericeti Olmi, 1984: 1637

    • Distribution: Maputo: 5 km E Manhiça (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Congo (Olmi 1984), Yemen (Olmi & van Harten 2006) and United Arab Emirates (Olmi 2008a), in addition to Gambia (new record: Lower River Division, Upper Baddibu, Farafenni (KJHC)) and Tanzania (new record: Mkomazi Game Reserve, Ibaya Camp, north-west side, 3°57.91′S 37°48.09′E, 30.iv–2.v. 1996, yellow pan trap, Acacia/Commiphora/Combretum bushland, S. van Noort, 1♀ (SAMC)).

    • Gonatopus faustae Olmi, 1998: 68

    • Distribution: Maputo: 6 km N Palmeira along Maputo—Xai Xai road, C. 5.ix.1995, B. 1.xii. 1995, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 24.viii.1996, B. 4.ix.1996, E. 29.ix.1996, 1♀ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 30.xi.1995, B. 3.xii.1995, E. 2.i.1996, 1♀ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 30.xi.1995, B. 2.xii.1995, E. 23.xii.1995, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 30.xi.1995, B. 2.xii.1995, E. 21.xii.1995, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 24.viii.1996, B. 27.viii.1996, E. 24.ix.1996, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 24.viii.1996, B. 25.viii.1996, E. 29.ix.1996, 1♂ paratype (AMNH); Maputo, along Bairro dos Piscadores—Marracuene road, Santa Maria, 14 paratypes (4♀, 10♂) (AMNH). Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, C. 24.xi.1999, B. 25.xi.1999, E. 21.xii. 1999, M. Olmi (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Doratulina instabilis (Ribaut) (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006). Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus guigliae (Benoit, 1951a: 298)

    • Distribution: Gaza: 2 km E Incomati River bridge, along Palmeira—Macia road, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 15.x. 1996, E. 14.xi.1996, M. Olmi, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 15.x. 1996, E. 18.xi.1996, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 15.x. 1996, E. 18.xi.1996, 1♀ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 16.x.1996, E. 18.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 15.x. 1996, E. 13.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH); same locality label, C. 11.x. 1996, B. 16.x. 1996, E. 18.xi.1996, 1♂ (AMNH). Maputo: Catembe, C. 26.xi.1999, B. 27.xi.1999, E. 7.i.2000, M. Olmi, 1♂ (AMNH). Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, C. 24.xi.1999, B. 28.xi.1999, E. 1.i.2000, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 29.v.2007, B. 5.vi.2007, E. 7.vii.2007, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Exitianus zuluensis Ross (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006). Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2006) and Uganda (Benoit 1951a).

    • Gonatopus incognitus Olmi, 1984: 1613

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo (AMNH, USNM); 26 km S Maputo, Umbelúzi (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 6.iii.2005, B. 7.iii.2005, E. 24.iii.2005, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C 8.xi.1999, B. 9.xi.1999, E.27.xi.1999,1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 10.xi.1999, E. 28.xi.1999, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, 8.xi.1999, sweeping, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Congo, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda (Olmi 2004), in addition to Yemen and Oman (Olmi & van Harten 2000).

    • Gonatopus macua Olmi, 2004: 359*

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, 10.iv.2002, sweeping, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unknown.

    • Gonatopus okahandjae Olmi, 1984: 1623

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo, Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Agriculture, experimental fields, 1985, M. Olmi (AMNH); 26 km S Maputo, Umbelúzi (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Agalliopsis sp. (Cicadellidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    • Recorded from the Cape Verde Islands, Mauritania, Namibia, South Africa and Yemen (Olmi & van Harten 2000), in addition to Sudan (new record: 39 km W Gedaref 19–29.ix.1987, L.J. Pinto, 1♀ (USNM)).

    • Gonatopus ridens Olmi, 1984: 1607

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo (AMNH); Maputo, Costa do Sol, Racecourse (AMNH). Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 10.xi.1999, E. 27.xi.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 11.xi.1999, E. 2.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 12.xi.1999, E. 2.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 9.xi.1999, E. 1.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 8.xi.1999, B. 10.xi.1999, E. 1.xii.1999, 1♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 22.iii.2003, B. 24.iii.2003, E. 14.iv.2003, 3♂ (OLM); same locality label, C. 22.iii.2003, B. 24.iii.2003, E. 14.iv.2003, 1♂ (SAMC); Maúa, C. 10.xi.1999,B. 14.xi.1999, E. 10.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♂ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Aconurella aethiopica (Cogan) (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006) and Aconurella shaba Ghauri (new record) (Cicadellidae).

    • Recorded from South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus rubrithorax (Benoit, 1954: 393)

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C. 11 iii.2005, B. 13.iii.2005, E. 4.iv.2005, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Cicadellidae.

    • Recorded from Madagascar (Benoit 1954).

    • Gonatopus seyrigi (Ceballos, 1936: 59)

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Campus of the Catholic University of Mozambique, Faculty of Agriculture, 7.vi.2007, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM); same locality label, C. 30.v.2007, B. 10.vi.2007, E. 15.vii.2007, 1♀ (OLM). Hosts in Mozambique: Exitianus sp. (Cicadellidae) (new record).

    • Recorded from Madagascar (Ceballos 1936) and South Africa (Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus fuscus (Olmi) group

    • Gonatopus ceres (Olmi, 1984: 1328)

    • Distribution: Nampula: Nampula, near Bishop Catholic Seminary, sweeping, 21.xi.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).Niassa: Cuamba, Camboja, near University Dormitory, C. 15.xi.1999, B. 19.xi.1999, E. 18.xii.1999, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM ); same locality label, C. 15 .xi. 1999, B. 17 .xi. 1999, E. 18 .xii. 1999, 1♀ (OLM ).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Caliscelis sp. (Caliscelidae) (Olmi 2004); Eumecurus hottentottus (Stål) (Cixiidae) (Olmi 2004).

    • Recorded from Namibia and South Africa (Olmi 2004, 2006), in addition to Tanzania (new record: Chambezi, vii.1987, on coconut, A.M. Varela, 1♀ (BMNH)) and Zimbabwe (new record: Sawmills, 9.vii.1923, Rhodesia Museum (SAMC)).

    • Gonatopus owaini Olmi group

    • Gonatopus emelyanovi Ponomarenko & Olmi, 2006: 7

    • Distribution: Niassa: Cuamba, Farm of the Catholic University of Mozambique, C.11 .iii.2005, B. 12.iii.2005, E. 2.iv.2005, M. Olmi, 1♀ (OLM).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Unidentified species of Dictyopharidae.

    • Recorded from Ethiopia (Ponomarenko & Olmi 2006).

    • Gonatopus gazensis Olmi, 1998: 74*

    • Distribution: Gaza: Praia do Bilene, Airport, 16.ix.1995, sweeping on grass, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Paroxychara cowla Medler (Flatidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    • Gonatopuspaulyi (Olmi) group

    • Gonatopus maputensis Olmi, 1998: 72*

    • Paradicondylus australis Olmi, 1994a: 74 (preoccupied).

    • Distribution: Maputo: Maputo, Costa do Sol, Municipal Agricultural Nursery, l0.x.1992, M. Olmi, ♀ holotype and 2♀ paratypes (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 11.x. 1992, B. 13.x. 1992, E. 6.xi.1992, 1♀ paratype (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 26.xi.1993, B. 28.xi.1993, E. 20.xii.1993, 1♂ (AMNH); same data as holotype, C. 21.ix. 1996, B. 25.ix.1996, E. 22.x.1996, 1♂ (AMNH).

    • Hosts in Mozambique: Nisia nervosa Motschulsky (Meenoplidae) (Guglielmino & Olmi 1997).

    DISCUSSION

    The checklist of Dryinidae of Mozambique in this paper includes 45 species, of which one new species, Gonatopus chiruanus, is described herein. In addition, the hitherto unknown male of Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit) is described for the first time.

    Table 1 summarizes data on the geographic distribution of currently known Mozambican species of Dryinidae. Eleven (25%) of the Mozambican dryinid species are restricted to eastern Africa, all but nine of these being Mozambican endemics. Outside eastern Africa, the Mozambican fauna has its closest affinity with that of southern Africa, with 5 species (11 %) recorded elsewhere on the continent only from that region. A further 12 (27%) have been found there and in other areas, with a single species known only from Madagascar. Fourteen other species have large continental distributions; some of them have also been collected in Yemen, Oman, on other Indian Ocean islands and in the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions — they are excluded from Table 1. Table 2 presents the Mozambican distribution of species known from Mozambique and reported in this paper. The Table shows that Dryinidae have been under-sampled. In four provinces (Cabo Delgado, Inhambane, Manica and Sofala), no species are known. In large provinces, such as Tete and Zambézia, only one and two species, respectively, are known to occur. The best-sampled province is Niassa, with 28 species, collected in only four major sites, all situated in the Cuamba and Mecanhelas districts; the rest of this large province has not been covered.

    A comparison between Mozambique, South Africa and Kenya, the African countries from which the dryinid fauna is best documented, is indicative of the research status on Dryinidae. In Kenya, 39 species have been recorded (Olmi & Copeland 2011); and in South Africa, 145 species (Olmi 2006, 2007, 2009; in addition, two new records are given in this paper). The conclusion arising from this comparison is that the dryinid fauna of Mozambique is insufficiently known.

    As regards hosts, the checklist shows that they are known only for 25 of the 45 species recorded from Mozambique. Rearing activities are necessary to improve upon this important biological datum. The Dryinidae are in fact important natural enemies of leaf- and planthopper pests of cultivated plants, so some of them are currently being used in biological control programmes in certain countries (Olmi 1999, 2000a). From this point of view, Mozambique is better studied in comparison with other African countries; in South Africa, the hosts of Dryinidae are known only for 15 of the 145 recorded species (Olmi 2006, 2007, 2009). Hosts of the 39 species reported from Kenya are unknown (Olmi & Copeland 2011). The paucity of knowledge as regards hosts reflects the collection techniques used in the abovementioned countries: rearing of parasitized hosts in Mozambique compared with trapping in South Africa and Kenya. Whereas trapping gives good results in respect of general knowledge of populations and number of species, it does not yield any data concerning what the hosts are, or about the biology of host-parasite interactions.

    TABLE 1

    Geographic distribution of Mozambican Dryinidae in the Afrotropics. Extensions to Palaearctic and Nearctic regions are not included.

    t01_715.gif

    TABLE 2

    The distribution of dryinid species across Mozambique.

    t02_715.gif

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Many thanks to the Director of the Faculty of Agriculture, Catholic University of Mozambique, for the facilities to collect in Cuamba area. For the identifications of Auchenorrhyncha species hosts of Mozambican dryinids, the authors are very indebted to Dr Michael Stiller (ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa). Dr Eduardo G. Virla and an anonymous reviewer are acknowledged for commenting on the manuscript.

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    Massimo Olmi, Adalgisa Guglielmino, Sultan Adamo Natha, and Alberto Albino Nota Alfredo "A Catalogue of Dryinidae of Mozambique, with Description of a New Species(Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)," African Invertebrates 53(2), 715-731, (1 December 2012). https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.053.0216
    Published: 1 December 2012
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