Brazil holds the largest flora in the world, with more than 35,000 described native species. However, a large portion of its flora is poorly known, and more than 2000 species are threatened with extinction. Because similar situations exist in virtually all other countries, the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity launched a program called the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). The vision of GSPC is to halt the continuing loss of plant diversity through the achievement of 16 outcome-oriented global targets set for 2020. Here we discuss the challenges ahead for countries committed to achieving GSPC targets and use the experience of the National Centre for Flora Conservation (CNCFlora), in Brazil, as a case study of successes in pursuing some targets, and some perceived failures. We offer information that might help other countries, decision makers, and policymakers to address difficulties and move themselves toward achieving GSPC targets. We also synthesize the main targets upon which CNCFlora acts, their current situation, and the desired improvements necessary to achieve targets by 2020. Finally, we provide recommendations to actors, stakeholders, decision makers, and policymakers in Brazil that could foster conservation actions and strategies in the country.
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