Soltani, N., Nurse, R. E., Robinson, R. E. and Sikkema, P. H. 2011. Effect of ammonium sulfate and water hardness on glyphosate and glufosinate activity in corn. Can. J. Plant Sci. 91: 1053-1059. Eight field trials were conducted over a 3-yr period (2008 to 2010) near Harrow and Ridgetown, Ontario, to evaluate the effect of water hardness (distilled: 0 ppm; intermediate: 353 ppm; and very hard 1799 ppm) on full label doses of glyphosate (900 g a.e. ha-1) and glufosinate (400 g a.i. ha-1) [with and without ammonium sulfate (AMS) at 2.5 L ha-1] efficacy in corn. There was no effect of water hardness on control of velvetleaf (ABUTH), redroot pigweed (AMARE), common lambsquarters (CHEAL), and annual grasses green foxtail (SETVI) and barnyardgrass (ECHCG) when glyphosate was applied with or without the AMS. There was also no difference in yield of corn with various water sources when glyphosate was applied with or without AMS. Glyphosate applied with various water sources with or without AMS controlled ABUTH, AMARE, CHEAL, and annual grasses better than glufosinate with or without AMS. Glufosinate with AMS, especially at the 1799 ppm water hardness, generally controlled ABUTH, AMARE, and CHEAL better than glufosinate without AMS, but there was no improvement in annual grass control. Contrasts indicated an 11% increase in yield when glufosinate was applied with AMS compared with when applied without AMS. Based on these results water hardness and AMS had little benefit on the efficacy of glyphosate in corn; however, efficacy of glufosinate was improved when applied with AMS at high water hardness.
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