Translator Disclaimer
29 September 2020 Reproductive Potential and Biological Characteristics of the Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Depending on Parasitoid-Host Ratio
Author Affiliations +

This study assessed the biological characteristics of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with different densities of female parasitoids with Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) caterpillars. Third instar caterpillars of D. saccharalis were exposed to C. flavipes females at parasitoid to host ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1, with 5 replications. The parasitism of C. flavipes was 90% at 3:1 ratio, and the emergence was 100% for all densities. The life cycle of C. flavipes ranged from 18.17 ± 0.26 to 18.93 ± 0.50 d with the densities of 12:1 and 1:1 parasitoid to host. The higher progeny of C. flavipes (87.38 ± 2.07 and 67.18 ± 2.57 individuals per D. saccharalis caterpillar) were obtained at the densities of 3:1 and 6:1, respectively. The sex ratio of parasitoid per D. saccharalis caterpillar ranged from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.66 ± 0.02 between the parasitoid to host densities of 12:1 and 3:1, respectively. The density of 3:1 C. flavipes females per D. saccharalis caterpillar was found to be optimal for propagation of the parasitoid.

Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major pest of sugar cane in North, Central, and South America (White & Wilson 2012; Dinardo-Miranda et al. 2012; Svedese et al. 2013). Direct injuries by D. saccharalis may cause losses of biomass and death of apical buds of plants (Rossato et al. 2013). Damage is cause by the reduction in production of sugar and alcohol by microorganisms present in the damaged stems (Dinardo-Miranda et al. 2012; Simões et al. 2012).

Chemical insecticides usually present low efficacy in first instar D. saccharalis because the insect feeds on the leaves of the plant cartridge, then migrates to the stalk of sugar cane (Antigo et al. 2013). Consequently, the importance of parasitoids for biological control of D. saccharalis is increased (Rodrigues et al. 2013). Use of the endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the most efficient method of controlling D. saccharalis (Silva et al. 2012). In Brazil, C. flavipes is released into about 3 million ha of sugar cane fields annually to control D. saccharalis (Vacari et al. 2012).

Mass rearing is important for biological control programs (Pastori et al. 2013; Pereira et al. 2013), and the density of female parasitoids per host may affect parasitism (Sampaio et al. 2001), progeny sex ratio (Chong & Oetting 2006, 2007), life cycle (Pereira et al. 2010), and the longevity of descendants (Favero et al. 2013; Pastori et al. 2013). Cotesia flavipes reared with D. saccharalis presented the appropriate biological characteristics, but the ideal proportion of the females of this natural enemy per caterpillar host needs to be better understood to increase the biological effectiveness of C. flavipes, and to improve the multiplication of this natural enemy. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the biological characteristics of C. flavipes with D. saccharalis caterpillars in different densities using adult parasitoid females.

Materials and Methods


Eggs of D. saccharalis were obtained from the rearing facility of the Laboratory of Biological Insect Control, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and placed in glass vials (8.5 cm diam × 13 cm high) with an artificial diet based on wheat germ, soybean, and sugar cane yeast for newly hatched to the fourth instar caterpillars (Hensley & Hammond 1968). At this stage, the caterpillars were transferred to disposable Petri dishes (6.5 cm diam × 2.5 cm high) and fed with a soybean meal and sugar cane yeast diet until they reached the pupal stage (Parra 2007). A group of 5% of pupae were randomly selected without deformation. Pupae were placed in plastic pots covered with a screen until they reached the adult stage. The adults were separated into groups of 20 males and 30 females per cage of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes (10 cm diam × 22 cm high). These cages were closed using bond paper and elastic and lined internally with paper sheets as the oviposition site. Eggs of D. saccharalis were collected daily, washed with a copper sulfate solution, and stored in a climate chamber at 25 ± 2 °C,70 ± 10% RH, and a 14:10 h (L:D) photoperiod, per Parra (2007).


Every fourth instar D. saccharalis caterpillar was individually exposed to a mated 24 h old C. flavipes female. After parasitism, the third instar larvae were placed in disposable Petri dishes with artificial diet semisolid (6.5 cm diam × 2.5 cm high). These plates were placed in a room at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14:8 h (L: D) photoperiod until C. flavipes pupae were formed. These pupae were placed individually in disposable cups with lids (100 mL) (Topform Plastics, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil) until the emergence of parasitoids. After emergence, a drop of honey was used to feed the parasitoids (Garcia et al. 2009).


Third instar D. saccharalis caterpillars were placed in plastic cups (100 mL) with artificial diet (Parra 2007) and exposed to 24 h old C. flavipes females. They were placed in a room at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod for 24 h, after which time the parasitoid females were removed from the cups. Each treatment consisted in 10 caterpillars and were replicated 5 times. Treatments were represented by densities of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 C. flavipes females per 1 D. saccharalis (1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1) (parasitoid to host). A completely randomized design was used.

The duration of the life cycle and percentage of parasitism (natural mortality of the host) (Abbott 1925), percentage of emergence of the progeny produced per female (rf = number of female progeny divided by number of females density), sex ratio (rs = number of females divided by number of adults), longevity 20 males and 20 females, and body length (mm) of female C. flavipes. The progeny ratio of females per female, sex ratio, and the body size (mm) of C. flavipes females emerged per D. saccharalis caterpillar were subjected to the analysis of variance and regression. Data of the number of males and females, parasitism, and emergence were subjected to the analysis of variance and, when significant, at 5% probability by the Scott-Knott test. The statistical software used for data analysis was the free version SigmaPlot (Systat Software Inc, San Jose, California, USA).


The percentage of parasitism of D. saccharalis caterpillars varied with the density of C. flavipes females from 34.33% to 90% (Fig. 1). However, the percentage of caterpillars with emergence of this parasitoid was 100% for all densities (Table 1).

The life cycle of C. flavipes was 18.93 ± 0.50, 18.26 ± 0.05, 18.45 ± 0.23, 18.34 ± 0.17, and 18.17 ± 0.26 d from egg to adult at the densities of 1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1 parasitoid to host, respectively. The density of C. flavipes female per D. saccharalis caterpillar affected its progeny (ŷ = 9.9335 + 40.2034x – 6.5109x2 + 0.2775x3; F = 6.6438; P = 0.0008; R2 = 0.55), and ranged from 32.94 ± 2.37 to 87.38 ± 2.07 individuals of C. flavipes per D. saccharalis caterpillar (Fig. 2A). The number of male and female C. flavipes per D. saccharalis caterpillar was higher at the densities of 3:1 (parasitoids per caterpillar) and 6:1 (parasitoids per caterpillar) parasitoid to host (Table 1).

The sex ratio of C. flavipes emerged per D. saccharalis caterpillar varied (ŷ = 0.7203 – 0.0019x – 0.0023x2; F = 9.1467; P = 0.0004; R2 = 0.52) with the parasitoid to host densities (Fig. 2B). The rate of female produced per female parasitoid (ŷ = 35.7941 – 6.2973x + 0.2913x2; F = 48.4844; P = 0.0001; R2 = 0.82) ranged from 1.82 ± 0.43 to 29.44 ± 3.86 at 12:1 to 1:1 parasitoid to host ratio (Fig. 3A).

The longevity of C. flavipes females ranged from 2.10 ± 0.64 to 1.51 ± 0.47 d at 1:1 and 12:1 parasitoid to host density. The longevity of males ranged from 1.84 ± 1.32 to 1.67 ± 1.07 d between densities.

The body length of the C. flavipes females was 2.27 ± 0.31 mm to 2.09 ± 0.52 mm (ŷ = 2.5428 – 0.3317x + 0.0607x2 – 0.0030x3) and for males ranged from 1.89 ± 0.27 mm to 1.83 ± 0.18 mm (F = 34.1565; P = 0.0001; R2 = 0.83) (Fig. 3B).

Fig. 1.

Parasitism percentage of Diatraea saccharalis depending on Cotesia flavipes density: 1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1 (parasitoids to host) at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod. P = 0.05 (significance level).


Table 1.

Number of female, males, and emergence percentage of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) (mean ± standard error) with 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 female parasitoids per Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) caterpillar at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod.



This study indicated that parasitism, progeny, sex ratio, and longevity of C. flavipes females are directly affected by the density of parasitoid to host. Based in our results, D. saccharalis should be multiplied with a ratio of 3:1 (parasitoid to host). Chong and Oetting (2007) mentioned that the density of parasitoid females per host can reduce the fertility and efficiency of mass rearing systems, principally due to the increased competition between immature parasitoids. Furthermore, Braconidae present the mechanisms to manipulate the immune response of their hosts (Strand & Pech 1995) with polydnavirus to facilitate the development of its larvae (Dupas et al. 2006, 2008).

Fig. 2.

Progeny (A) and sex ratio (B) of Cotesia flavipes density in Diatraea saccharalis: 1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1 (parasitoids to host) at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod.


Fig. 3.

Ratio of female produced by female (A) and body length (mm) (B) of Cotesia flavipes density in Diatraea saccharalis: 1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1 (parasitoids to host) at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod.


The lowest parasitism rates of C. flavipes females on D. saccharalis caterpillars at the proportions of 1:1 to 12:1 parasitoid to host suggested the presence of defense mechanisms controlling immature parasitoids. Pennacchio and Strand (2006) suggested that hosts could present cellular defenses and reactions involving encapsulation and melanization of endoparasitoid eggs. On the other hand, parasitism by several females can increase the survival of immature parasitoids by overcoming the host immune response (Hood et al. 2012; Mahmoud et al. 2012). However, the increased competition for resources may hinder the development of immature parasitoids and the emergence of adults, as reported with the density of 28 Trichospilus diatraeae (Che-rian & Margabandhu) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) females per Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae (Favero et al. 2013).

The reduced progeny with the higher densities (9:1 to 12:1) (parasitoid to host) suggested high proportions of parasitoid females per host result in greater competition and death of immature parasitoids. Similar results were found by Pereira et al. (2010) when evaluating how the density of female Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) affects their reproductive performance on pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

The small size of the progenies found with 9:1 and 12:1 (parasitoid to host) ratio may also be explained by the lower amount of resources available per host, which limits the parasitoid development. However, Pereira et al. (2017) reported insect hosts that already have been parasitized are considered a low quality resource, which may affect the number of ovipositions made by other parasitoids. Because the number of eggs laid affects the host immune response, the offspring survivorship also may be affected. Pupae of Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) received 1 to 5 parasitoid P. elaeisis ovipositions. Palmistichus elaeisis developmental time decreased with increased oviposition density and 3 ovipositions provided higher offspring numbers, particularly female production, and optimal larval fitness. Progeny body mass and sex ratio were not affected by oviposition density. Females and males survived longer with 1 oviposition of the female parasitoid. Parasitoid emergence increased with the number of parasitoid ovipositions, and 100% parasitism and corresponding 100% host pupal mortality were achieved with all oviposition densities. An increased number of ovipositions decreased the number of total hemocytes and granulocytes, plasmatocytes, and prohemocytes in the circulating host hemolymph. Oenocytes and espherulocytes were not affect by the number of parasitoid ovipositions in the host. Superparasitism is a strategy of P. elaeisis for optimal progeny fitness, balancing optimal progeny performance with amelioration of host immune response (Pereira et al. 2017).

The high sex ratio of C. flavipes per D. saccharalis caterpillar at the densities of 3:1 and 6:1 parasitoid to host is important because the female parasitoids are responsible for parasitism and progeny production (Amalin et al. 2005; Rodrigues et al. 2013). Thus, the reduction of sex ratio may compromise the efficiency of parasitism of C. flavipes due to the lower number of females produced (Pereira et al. 2009; 2010). However, the variation in the sex ratio per caterpillar of this host may be related to the resource availability, as reported for T. diatraeae with D. saccharalis and T. molitor pupae (Chichera et al. 2012; Favero et al. 2013) and P. elaeisis with Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Bombyx mori, and D. saccharalis pupae (Pereira et al. 2010, 2013; Chichera et al. 2012).

The inverse relation in the number of parasitoid females produced per C. flavipes female with the total number of offspring confirms the fact that superparasitism may decrease the number of females produced (Soares et al. 2009; Andrade et al. 2010). The number of females laying eggs determines the sex ratio; as this number increases, the number of fertilized eggs decreases (Andrade et al. 2012).

The variations in size of C. flavipes adults with different parasitoid female densities can be explained by the resources available per host pupae with the increasing number of larvae developing in its interior (Tian et al. 2008; Harvey et al. 2013). This can reduce the efficiency of biological control because the body size is positively correlated with the indicators of parasitoid quality, such as higher longevity, fecundity, progeny emergence, and sex ratio (Pereira et al. 2010).

The use of 3 C. flavipes females to each D. saccharalis caterpillar may increase the genetic variability of the offspring, improve propagation, and reduce the production costs of this parasitoid. This ratio also is the most suitable density for the propagation of this natural enemy due to its higher parasitism, progeny, sex ratio, and longevity of females, in addition to contributing to the increase in the genetic variability of the offspring.


To “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológi-co (CNPq) Processo 304 055/2019-0,” “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES),” “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), and “Programa Cooperativo sobre Proteção Florestal (PROTEF) do Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF)” for financial support. Global Edico Services edited and rewrote this manuscript.

References Cited


Abbott WS. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18: 265–267. Google Scholar


Amalin DM, Pena JE, Duncan RE. 2005. Effects of host age, female parasitoid age, and host plant on parasitism of Ceratogramma etiennei (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Florida Entomologist 88: 77–82. Google Scholar


Andrade GS, Serrão JE, Zanuncio JC, Zanuncio TV, Leite GLD, Polanczyk RA. 2010. Immunity of an alternative host can be overcome by higher densities of its parasitoids Palmistichus elaeisis and Trichospilus diatraeae. PLoS ONE 5: e13231. Google Scholar


Andrade GS, Sousa AH, Santos JC, Gama FC, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2012. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 84: 767–774. Google Scholar


Antigo MR, Oliveira HN, Carvalho GA, Pereira FF. 2013. Repelência de produtos fitossanitários usados na cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos na emergência de Trichogramma galloi. Revista Ciência Agronômica 44: 910–916. Google Scholar


Chichera RA, Pereira FF, Kassab SO, Barbosa RH, Pastori PL, Rossoni C. 2012. Capacidade de busca e reprodução de Trichospilus diatraeae e Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) em pupas de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Interciencia 37: 852–856. Google Scholar


Chong JH, Oetting RD. 2006. Functional response and progeny production of the Madeira mealybug parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope: the effects of host and parasitoid densities. Biological Control 39: 320–328. Google Scholar


Chong JH, Oetting RD. 2007. Progeny fitness of the mealybug parasitoid Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as affected by brood size, sex ratio, and host quality. Florida Entomologist 90: 656–664. Google Scholar


Dinardo-Miranda LL, Anjos IA, Costa VP, Fracasso JV. 2012. Resistance of sugarcane cultivars to Diatraea saccharalis. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 47: 1–7. Google Scholar


Dupas S, Gitau CW, Branca A, Ru BPL, Silvain JF. 2008. Evolution of a polydnavirus gene in relation to parasitoid-host species immune resistance. Journal of Heredity 99: 491–499. Google Scholar


Dupas S, Gitau C, Ru BPL, Silvain JF. 2006. Single-step PCR differentiation of Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron 1891) and Cotesia flavipes Cameron 1891 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using polydnavirus markers. Journal Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42: 319–324. Google Scholar


Favero K, Pereira FF, Kassab SO, Oliveira HN, Costa DP, Zanuncio JC. 2013. Biological characteristics of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are influenced by the number of females exposed per pupa of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Florida Entomologist 96: 583–589. Google Scholar


Garcia JF, Botelho PSM, Macedo LPM. 2009. Criação do parasitoide Cotesia flavipes em laboratório, pp. 199–219 In Bueno VHP [ed.], Controle Biológico de Pragas: Produção Massal e Controle de Qualidade. Editora UFLA, Viçosa, Brazil. Google Scholar


Harvey JA, Poelman EH, Tanaka T. 2013. Intrinsic inter and intraspecific competition in parasitoid wasps. Annual Review of Entomology 58: 333–351. Google Scholar


Hensley SD, Hammond Jr AM. 1968. Laboratory techniques for rearing the sugarcane borer on an artificial diet. Journal of Economic Entomology 61: 1742–1743. Google Scholar


Hood G, Egan SP, Feder JL. 2012. Interspecific competition and speciation in endoparasitoids. Evolutionary Biology 39: 219–230. Google Scholar


Mahmoud AMA, Luna-Santillana EJ, Guo X, Reyes-Villanueva F, Rodríguez-Pérez MA. 2012. Development of the braconid wasp Cotesia flavipes in two Cram-bids, Diatraea saccharalis and Eoreuma loftini: evidence of host developmental disruption. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 15: 63–68. Google Scholar


Parra JRP [ed.]. 2007. Técnicas de Criação de Insetos para Programa de Controle Biológico. FEALQ, Piracicaba, Brazil. Google Scholar


Pastori PL, Zanuncio JC, Pereira FF, Pratissoli D, Cecon PR, Serrão JE. 2013. Temperatura e tempo de refrigeração de pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) afetam parâmetros biológicos de Trischospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)? Semina: Ciências Agrárias 34: 1493–1508. Google Scholar


Pennacchio F, Strand MR. 2006. Evolution of developmental strategies in parasitic Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 51: 233–258. Google Scholar


Pereira KS, Guedes NMP, Serrão JE, Zanuncio JC, Guedes RNC. 2017. Super-parasitism, immune response and optimum progeny yield in the gregarious parasitoid Palmisticus elaeisis. Pest Management Science 73: 1101–1109. Google Scholar


Pereira FF, Zanuncio JC, Kassab SO, Pastori PL, Barbosa RH, Rossoni C. 2013. Biological characteristics of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & Lasalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on refrigerated pupae of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 73: 117–121. Google Scholar


Pereira FF, Zanuncio JC, Serrão JE, Pastori PL, Ramalho FS. 2009. Reproductive performance of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with previously refrigerated pupae of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology 69: 865–869. Google Scholar


Pereira FF, Zanuncio JC, Serrão JE, Zanuncio TV, Pratissoli D, Pastori PL. 2010. The density of females of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) affects their reproductive performance on pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 82: 323–331. Google Scholar


Rodrigues MAT, Pereira FF, Kassab SO, Pastori PL, Glaeser DF, Oliveira HN, Zanuncio JC. 2013. Thermal requirements and generation estimates of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in sugarcane producing regions of Brazil. Florida Entomologist 96: 154–159. Google Scholar


Rossato Jr JAS, Costa GHG, Madaleno LL, Mutton MJR, Higley LG, Fernandes OA. 2013. Characterization and impact of the sugarcane borer on sugarcane yield and quality. Agronomy Journal 105: 643–648. Google Scholar


Sampaio MV, Bueno VHP, Pérez-Maluf R. 2001. Parasitismo de Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) em diferentes densidades de Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididade). Neotropical Entomology 30: 81–87. Google Scholar


Silva CCM, Marques EJ, Oliveira JV, Valente ECN. 2012. Preference of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cam.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Diatraea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 34: 23–27. Google Scholar


Simões RA, Reis LG, Bento JMS, Solter LF, Delalibera Jr I. 2012. Biological and behavioral parameters of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are altered by the pathogen Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae). Biological Control 63: 164–171. Google Scholar


Soares MA, Gutierrez CT, Zanuncio JC, Pedrosa ARP, Lorenzon AS. 2009. Super-parasitismo de Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) y comportamiento de defensa de dos hospederos. Revista Colombiana de Entomología 35: 62–65. Google Scholar


Strand MR, Pech LL. 1995. Immunological basis for compatibility in parasitoid-host relationships. Annual Review of Entomology 40: 31–56. Google Scholar


Svedese VM, Lima EÁLA, Porto ALF. 2013. Horizontal transmission and effect of the temperature in pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana against Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 56: 413–419. Google Scholar


Tian SP, Zang JH, Yan YH, Wang CZ. 2008. Interspecific competition between the ichneumonid Campoletis chlorideae and the braconid Microplitis mediator in their host Helicoverpa armigera. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 127: 10–19. Google Scholar


Vacari AM, De Bortoli SA, Borba DF, Martins MIEG. 2012. Quality of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared at different host densities and the estimated cost of its commercial production. Biological Control 63: 102–106. Google Scholar


White WH, Wilson LT. 2012. Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem. Entomological Society of America 41: 275–281. Google Scholar
Samir Oliveira Kassab, Marcelo Sousa Barbosa, Fabricio Fagundes Pereira, Camila Rossoni, Patrik Luiz Pastori, Jéssica Terilli Lucchetta, Mariana Santana Guerra, and José Cola Zanuncio "Reproductive Potential and Biological Characteristics of the Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Depending on Parasitoid-Host Ratio," Florida Entomologist 103(3), 316-320, (29 September 2020).
Published: 29 September 2020

Back to Top