The Brazilian Amazon region comprises an exceptionally-high diversity of angiosperme, among which approximately 180 described species, both native and exotic that can be potential fruit fly hosts (Silva & Ronchi-Teles 2000). Currently, 60 Anastrepha species have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon region, of which about 30 species are endemic (Trindade & Uchôa 2011; Zucchi et al. 2011).
Here we report on new host/fruit fly/parasitoid associations for some Anastrepha species for both Brazil and the Amazon region. A total of 4,137 fruit (73.9 kg) from 40 different native and introduced plant species in 19 families were collected from 2008 through 2011 in Manaus (S 03° 06′ 07″ W 60° 01′ 30″), Maués (S 03° 23′ 01″ W 57° 43′ 07″), Presidente Figueiredo (S 02° 02′ 04″ W 60° 01′ 30″), and São Gabriel da Cachoeira (S 00° 07′ 49″ W 7° 05′ 21″) in the state of Amazonas; in Porto Velho (S 08° 45′ 43″ W 63° 54′ 14″) in the state of Rondônia, and in Boa Vista (S 02° 49′ 11″ W 60° 40′ 24″) in the state of Roraima. Fallen fruit, both ripe and ripening, were collected randomly from the ground under tree canopies within the forest. Cassava fruits were collected in an area adjacent to the forest in Manaus (Amazonas) and Porto Velho (Rondônia). Adult flies and parasitoids were reared from collected fruits following methods described in Ronchi-Teles et al. (2011). Voucher specimens were deposited at the Coleção de Invertebrados of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia.
A total of 3,470 fruit (63.3 kg) were infested yielding 7,662 puparia from which 3,073 Anastrepha adults (1,469 males and 1,604 females), 669 braconid parasitoids, and 17 figitid parasitoids emerged. We report Anastrepha fractura Stone infesting fruit of Salacia sp. (Celastrales: Celastraceae) in association with Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti), and Opius bellus Gahan parasitoids for the first time (Table 1). Previously, A. fractura had been reported solely from Guyana (Stone 1942) and Amazonas, and the only known host and associated parasitoid were Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C.C. Berg (Rosales: Moraceae) and Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (Costa et al. 2009), respectively. We also report Anastrepha distincta Greene infesting Inga cinnamomea Spruce ex Benth (Fabales: Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Brazil for the first time (Table 1), but which was not attacked by any of the parasitoid species herein reported. The remaining 13 Anastrepha species recovered during sampling (Table 1) had previously been reported infesting the hosts from which they were recovered here (Zucchi et al. 2011).
We also report O. bellus and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) associated with Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, and Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes) associated with A. coronilli and Anastrepha striata Schiner for the first time in Brazil. Our results indicate that native host plants in the Amazon forest in Brazil play an important role as reservoirs of native parasitoids and corroborate previous studies in forested areas (López et al. 1999; Aluja et al. 2003; Costa et al. 2009; Ronchi-Teles et al. 2011).
We would like to thank Ana Claúdia Araújo, Felipe Gomes, Mírian Santos, Neusa Hamada, Tatiana Senra, and Weber Novaes for their help with the collections. Thanks are also due to Carter R. Miller, the anonymous reviewers and the editor for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq 575664/2008-8) and Rede Amazônica de Pesquisas sobre Moscas-das-Frutas (EMBRAPA Chamada 05/2006 Agrofuturo). VS.D. was supported under a CNPq fellowship during her Ph.D.
A new natural host for Anastrepha fractura Stone, Salacia sp., is reported for the first time in Brazil. Parasitoids attacking A. fractura are also reported. We also report Anastrepha distincta Greene infesting Inga cinnamomea in Brazil for the first time. New associations between Anastrepha species and parasitoids are also reported.
Um novo hospedeiro natural de Anastrepha fractura Stone, Salacia sp., é relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. Parasitoides atacando A. fractura são também relatados. Nós também relatamos Anastrepha distincta Greene infestando Inga cinnamomea no Brasil pela primeira vez. Novas associações entre espécies de Anastrepha e parasitoides também são relatadas.